Investigations in lower GI Bleed

Q Least useful investigation in a pt with recurrent LGI bleed, multiple upper and lower GI endoscopies negative

a) BMFT

b) Double balloon enteroscopy

c) Capsule endoscopy

d) Push endoscopy

Answer

Free for all

A

Investigations in lower GI bleed should be specific and less time consuming

Small bowel enteroclysis, which uses a tube to infuse barium, methylcellulose, and air directly into the small bowel, yields better images than simple small bowel follow-through. Because the yield has been reported to be very low and the test is poorly tolerated, it is now rarely used.

Capsule endoscopy uses a small capsule with a video camera. capsule endoscopy is an excellent tool for the patient who is hemodynamically stable but continues to bleed, with reported  success  rates  as  high  as  90%  in  identifying  a  small bowel  pathology.

The hemodynamically stable patient should undergo small bowel enteroscopy. Usually performed with a pediatric colonoscope, it is referred to as push endoscopy. It can reach about 50 to 70 cm past the ligament of Treitz  in most cases and permits endoscopic management of some lesions. Overall, push enteroscopy is successful in 40% of patients .

Double-balloon endoscopy is another technique gaining in popularity. Although technically difficult, this approach is capable of providing a complete examination of the small bowel. In expert hands, double-balloon enteroscopy can identify a bleeding source in 77% of cases with occult bleeding, with the yield increasing to over 85% if the endoscopy is per-formed within 1 month of an overt bleeding episode.The advantage of this technique is that as well as visualization,  biopsies can be performed and therapeutic interventions undertaken.

To conclude investigations in lower GI bleed have to be specific and have high sensitivity also.

Sabiston

Chyle leak after esophagectomy

Q After  esophagectomy ICD draining 800 – 1000ml chyle 5-7 days post operatively. Next management

a) NPO, TPN

b) Enteral feeding with medium chain

c) Re explore and suture the defect

Answer free 

c

Once the diagnosis is made, one should ensure the pleural space is completely evacuated; if needed, drainage is done by a chest tube or a radiologically directed catheter placement.

Feedings are stopped and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is started. The amount of chest tube output is then monitored for several days in order to make a decision about the possible need for reoperation. Small leaks can seal with nonoperative therapy. Large initial daily outputs (typically greater than 1 L/day) often fail nonoperative therapy and require reoperation. An absolute amount of drainage for prediction of failure is unknown and one should consider also if there is a gradual reduction in daily output to continue with conservative therapy.

If the drainage is less than 500 mL per day and slowly decreasing, continued conservative therapy is frequently successful. Continued volumes more than 1 L after 2 days of TPN is a good indication of the need for reoperation. In general, it is better to be more rather than less aggressive in returning to the operation theater with a chylothorax. It was more common after THE and was associated with longer intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays. There was no difference in mortality between those with and without a chylothorax.

Patients with initial drainage exceeding 2 L within 2 days of starting conservative treatment all required reoperation.

Treatment of anal incontinence


Q) Newest treatment for anal incontinence?
a. Sacral nerve stimulation
b. Artificial sphincter.
c. Repair of sphincter
d. Gluteus maximus graft

More Questions 

Answer a)

Sacral nerve stimulation is the newest modality in treatment for anal incontinence. In it electrodes are placed via the sacral foramina. The nerve supply of anal sphincter is similar to lower extremity so their stimulation can lead to contraction of various foot muscles.

Others are all older methods

Shackelford page 1779

Modified Nissen’s fundoplication

Q ) Modified Nissen's Fundoplication

a) 2700 anterior wrap around esophagus

b) 2400 wrap

c) 3600 wrap over > 52 Fr for 1 – 2 cm

d) 600 wrap over 42 Fr for 4 cm

Answer

c

Nissen fundoplication is complete 360 degree but has high incidence of gas bloat. To counter this modification done to wrap over 52 F tube for 1-2 cm

Belsey - Left thoracotomy, mobilization of distal esophagus and stomach, hiatus opened from above,  fundus is brought 270 degrees around distal esophagus. Then the whole assembly is brought down and crura is repaired.

Hill procedure - No fundoplication is done

Toupet is anterior fundoplication either 240 degree or 270 degree.

 

Foreign body esophagus

Q) True about foreign body in esophagus

a) Sharp objects should be operated and not retrieved

b) Lead batteries should be removed

c) Most common impacted foreign bodies are dentures

d) Contrast examination of esophagus should be done before endoscopy

 

Answer

b

Sharp objects can be removed over overtubes and not always require surgery. Lead batteries can corrode and decay in the stomach or intestine and should always be removed. Most common impacted foreign bodies are food boluses above a pathological narrowing and require endoscopic break up

Contrast examination is not always required and might complicate things

Bailey page 991

Siewert classification for GE junction tumors

Q) According to Siewert classification tumors at GE junction are

a) Type I

b) Type II

c) Type III

d) Type IV

Answer (free for all)

Answer b

Type I   Lower  (centre located within between 1-5cm above the anatomic OGJ)

Type II Real GE junction  (within 1cm above and 2cm below the OGJ)

Type III  (2-5cm below OGJ)

This classification has only 3 subtypes

According to the Siewert-Stein classification,

Type I tumour 25% approx

Type II - Most common 49%

Type III was present in 25%

This classification helps in deciding the operative management and unified pre op classificationT

Types of Surgery

Type I cancer--depending of the size of the tumour--distal 2/3 oesophagectomy with the resection of the proximal lesser curve of the stomach or total gastrectomy  or THE

In patients with types II and III cancers total gastrectomy

 

Strongest layer of the intestine

Q) Which is the strongest layer of the intestine?

a) Mucosa

b) Submucosa

c) Muscularis propria

d) Muscularis mucosa

Answer:

b) Submucosa is the strongest and most important layer for intestinal anastomosis. It has fibroblasts that will ultimately release collagen and hold the anastomosis together. This layer should be fully incorporated in the anastomosis.

Inverted Vs everted anastomosis of intestine debate has been log going on but now many prefer inverted because mucosa is exposed to mucosa and eventually degrades joining the two submuoca together to cause healing by primary intention.

REF Schakelford: page 923

Duodenal atresia

Question on Duodenal atresia was asked in AIIMS 2017 in April

Q) An infant presents with duodenal atresia. Which of the following is true about this condition?

a) It is the most common GI atresia

b) It presents soon after birth with non bilious vomiting

c) Pre natal detection of duodenal atresia is common

d) Gastro jejunostomy is the procedure of choice to bypass the obstruction

Answer (free) 

C-

Commonly detected in the pre natal ultrasound

Duodenal atresia is seen in 1:5000 live births and most common atresia is jejunoileal (1in 2000). It is associated with lot of other congenital malformations like Down's,  prematurity, biliary atresia etc.

Read More ...

Borrmann’s classification for ca stomach

Q) According to Borrmann's Classification of Ca stomach Type II is

a) Fungating

b) Polypoid

c) Ulcerative

d) Infiltrative

Answer free

Ans  a

Fungating

Borrmann’s classification is for advanced gastric tumors. 

It is useful to distinguish between advanced and early gastric tumors because in advanced tumors neo adjuvant therapy improves over all survival.

The gross appearance of advanced gastric carcinomas can be divided into

Type I for polypoid growth

Type II for fungating growth,

Type III for ulcerating growth,

Type IV for diffusely infiltrating growth which is also referred to as linitisplastica 

advanced ca stomach
Borrman's classification of ca stomach

Endocrine cells of pancreas

Q) Delta cells in the pancreas secrete

a) Insulin

b) Glucagon

c) Somatostatin

d) Secretin

Free answer for all

Answer d

Somatostatin

Endocrine pancreas
Endocrine cells of pancreas

Pancreas- Endocrine functions

Beta cells form 65-80% of pancreatic endocrine cells and produce insulin

Alpha cells 12-20% and produce glucagon

Delta cells 3-10% and produce somatostatin

PP cells - Pancreatic polypeptide 1%

Somatostain is an inhibitory hormone and inhibits most of the things

 

Thyroid Questions

Q) Which of the following thyroid cancers do not take up radio active iodine

a) Medullary carcinoma thyroid

b) Papillary  carcinoma

c) Follicular carcinoma

d) Hurthle cell carcinoma

Free Answer

a - Medullary carcinoma

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is a tumor that arises from the C cells ie the parafollicular cells and not from cells of thyroid follicles.

These are not TSH dependent and hence do not take up radioactive iodine

Hurthle cell carcinoma is a variation of follicular carcinoma only.

In these tumors lymph node involvement is about 60%

Bailey page 769

 

Atrial Septal Defect

 In exams like DNB SS questions on ASD and VSD are common. Most cardiac surgery questions are here

Q) Most common ASD is 

a) Ostium Primum

b) Ostium Secundum

C) Sinus Venosus

d) All are equal

Answer 

b

Ostium Secundum

 

ASDs
Common defects
Ostium secundum: fossa ovalis defect (approximately 70 per cent of ASDs)
Ostium primum: atrioventricular septal defect (approx imately 20 per cent of ASDs)
Sinus venosus defect: often associated with anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (approximately 10 per cent of ASDs)
Patent foramen ovale: common in isolation, usually no left-to-right shunt (not strictly an ASD)

Rarer defects
Inferior vena cava defects: a low sinus venosus defect and may allow shunting of blood into the left atrium
Coronary sinus septal defect: also known as unroofed coronary sinus with the left superior vena cava draining to the left atrium as part of a more complex lesion