Sacral nerve stimulation is the newest modality in treatment for anal incontinence. In it electrodes are placed via the sacral foramina. The nerve supply of anal sphincter is similar to lower extremity so their stimulation can lead to contraction of various foot muscles.
Nissen fundoplication is complete 360 degree but has high incidence of gas bloat. To counter this modification done to wrap over 52 F tube for 1-2 cm
Belsey - Left thoracotomy, mobilization of distal esophagus and stomach, hiatus opened from above, fundus is brought 270 degrees around distal esophagus. Then the whole assembly is brought down and crura is repaired.
Hill procedure - No fundoplication is done
Toupet is anterior fundoplication either 240 degree or 270 degree.
Sharp objects can be removed over overtubes and not always require surgery. Lead batteries can corrode and decay in the stomach or intestine and should always be removed. Most common impacted foreign bodies are food boluses above a pathological narrowing and require endoscopic break up
Contrast examination is not always required and might complicate things
b) Submucosa is the strongest and most important layer for intestinal anastomosis. It has fibroblasts that will ultimately release collagen and hold the anastomosis together. This layer should be fully incorporated in the anastomosis.
Inverted Vs everted anastomosis of intestine debate has been log going on but now many prefer inverted because mucosa is exposed to mucosa and eventually degrades joining the two submuoca together to cause healing by primary intention.
Question on Duodenal atresia was asked in AIIMS 2017 in April
Q) An infant presents with duodenal atresia. Which of the following is true about this condition?
a) It is the most common GI atresia
b) It presents soon after birth with non bilious vomiting
c) Pre natal detection of duodenal atresia is common
d) Gastro jejunostomy is the procedure of choice to bypass the obstruction
Commonly detected in the pre natal ultrasound
Duodenal atresia is seen in 1:5000 live births and most common atresia is jejunoileal (1in 2000). It is associated with lot of other congenital malformations like Down's, prematurity, biliary atresia etc.
In exams like DNB SS questions on ASD and VSD are common. Most cardiac surgery questions are here
Q) Most common ASD is
a) Ostium Primum
b) Ostium Secundum
C) Sinus Venosus
d) All are equal
ASDs ■ Common defects
Ostium secundum: fossa ovalis defect (approximately 70 per cent of ASDs) Ostium primum: atrioventricular septal defect (approx imately 20 per cent of ASDs)
Sinus venosus defect: often associated with anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (approximately 10 per cent of ASDs) Patent foramen ovale: common in isolation, usually no left-to-right shunt (not strictly an ASD)
Inferior vena cava defects: a low sinus venosus defect and may allow shunting of blood into the left atrium
Coronary sinus septal defect: also known as unroofed coronary sinus with the left superior vena cava draining to the left atrium as part of a more complex lesion