Q) A 50 year old male undergoes pancreatectomy for Carcinoma head of pancreas. His pre op Hb was 9.2g% and during surgery he received 5 units of PRBC. In the post op period on the 2nd day he develops ECG changes. Work up is done for Myocardial Ischemia which is negative. What is the most common  cause of ECG changes here

a) Hyponatremia

b) Hyperkalemia

c) Hypokalemia

d) Hypercalcemia

Free Answer  b, Hyperkalemia

Transfusion of high volume of  PRBC especially stored blood leads to hyperkalemia. In the setting of pancreatectomy in an already anemic patient, if massive blood transfusion is given, chances of hyperkalemia  are there.

The ECG changes of Hyperkalemia are tall T waves, shortened QT interval and ST segment depression


Mass in Right lower quadrant

Q) A 55 year old lady presents with vague pain in right lower abdomen. Physical examination reveals a well defined mass there which is non tender and freely mobile. It is non pulsatile as well. What is the most likely possibility?

a) Appendicular mass

b) Mesenteric cyst

c) Perforated tubo ovarian mass

d) Meckel's diverticulum



Mesenteric cysts are uncommon lesions found in this age group. It typically presents as a freely mobile mass  which moves perpendicular to small blwel axis. It is painless as well.

Appendicular mass will have a preceding history of pain abdomen

Similarly perforated  tubo ovarian mass will also have a history of pain 

Meckel's diverticulum does not present as this kind of mass

  • gastricbypass.surgery
  • Blood Supply of Stomach

    Q) True about blood supply of stomach

    a) Right gastric artery is the largest artery to the stomach

    b) At least three out of four arteries of the stomach can be ligated and blood supply to the stomach may remain preserved.

    c) Right gastric artery originates from splenic artery

    d) Aberrant left hepatic artery arises from splenic artery



    Blood supply of stomach is mostly consistent and there are four named arteries.

    Left gastric artery is the largest artery to the stomach and in 15-20% cases, there is an aberrant left hepatic artery which arises from it. 

    At least three arteries of the stomach can be safely ligated if the arcades on the greater and lesser curvatures are preserved and vascularity of whole of stomach may be preserved.

    Right gastric artery is the branch of common hepatic artery or Gastro duodenal artery

    Aberrant left hepatic artery is the branch of Left gastric artery. It is seen in 15-20% cases.

    Right gastro epiploic artery is the branch of Gastro duodenal artery and left gastro epiploic from splenic artery

    Blood supply of stomach


    Billroth 2 surgery

    Q) What is true regarding complications of billroth 2 surgery?

    a) It has less complications than billroth 1 surgery

    b) Recurrent ulceration is more common in the afferent limb as compared to efferent limb.

    c) Afferent loop obstruction is more common after billroth 2 surgery

    d) Billroth I operation is preferred in scarred duodenum

    Answer c -

    In billroth 2 surgery, afferent limb obstruction is more common

    In surgery for benign gastric ulcers, billroth I reconstruction is the preferred choice. Billroth II surgery has problems of

    1. Retained antrum syndrome
    2. Afferent loop obstruction
    3. Duodenal stump leak (1-3%)

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