Retained antrum syndrome

Q) True about retained antrum syndrome after gastrectomy  are all except

a) It is a persistent hypergastrinemic state

b) It is only seen after Billroth II Gastrectomy

c) Technetium labelled food is not helpful in diagnosing this condition

d) Serum gastrin is usually less than 1000 pg/ml


Answer c

 After billroth II gastrectomy, if a cuff of gastric mucosa remains with duodenum, this entity is called as retained antrum syndrome. This cuff of gastric mucosa is cut off from the proximal stomach and inhibitory effect of hormones such as VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)  leading to a persistent hypergastrinemic state. ALso this gastric mucosa is continuously bathed by the alkaline contents of duodenum , which further increases the acid formation.

Both Basal and maximal gastric acid outputs increase but it is not as high as seen in zollinger ellison syndrome. Typically less than 1000 pg/ml

This condition can present as recurrent and persistent ulcerations. Technetium scanning is the diagnostic modality of choice. Treatment is re do surgery and antral excision.

Technetium pertechnate imaging has a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 100%

More about retained antrum syndrome

Dieulafoy lesion

Diuelafoy lesion which is false? (AIIMS 2018) 
A. Most of the bleed cannot be visualised due to small mucosal defect lies over large arterial
bleed.
B. Large 1-3 mm artery in the submucosa is the source
C. MC in the greater curvature
D. Found within 6 cm from GEJ

Answer 

 

Dumping Syndrome

Q) Late dumping syndrome is due to 

a) Excessive release of insulin

b) Food bolus in jejunum

c) Release of serotonin

d) Local enteric reflexes

Answer

a, Excessive release of Insulin 

Dumping syndrome are most common after billroth II gastrectomy followed by BI and Truncal vagotomy and gastro jejunostomy.

Dumping can occur 30 mins after food, (early dumping) or 2 hours after eating (late dumping). Early dumping has GI symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, epigastric fullness, diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Early dumping occurs due to rapid emptying of chyme in jejunum. This hyperosmolar fluid draws water from extracellular compartment to the lumen of small intestine causing intestinal distension and autonomic changes.Serotonin, bradykinin-like substances, neurotensin, and enteroglucagon are involved in early dumping.

Late dumping syndrome  has more cardiovascular symptoms such as palpitations, light headedness, dizziness, tachycardia, diaphoresis, flushing and blurred vision.

It occurs due to delivery of carbohydrates into jejunum, their absorption causes hyperglycemia and insulin release. Excessive insulin release leads to development of symptoms.

Treatment of Dumping syndrome

  1. Diet - Avoid carbohydrates, frequent small meals of protein and fat and separate liquids from solids
  2. surgery Conversion to Roux en Y

Ref Sabiston 1212

 

Borrmann’s classification for ca stomach

Q) According to Borrmann's Classification of Ca stomach Type II is

a) Fungating

b) Polypoid

c) Ulcerative

d) Infiltrative

Answer free

Ans  a

Fungating

Borrmann’s classification is for advanced gastric tumors. 

It is useful to distinguish between advanced and early gastric tumors because in advanced tumors neo adjuvant therapy improves over all survival.

The gross appearance of advanced gastric carcinomas can be divided into

Type I for polypoid growth

Type II for fungating growth,

Type III for ulcerating growth,

Type IV for diffusely infiltrating growth which is also referred to as linitisplastica 

advanced ca stomach
Borrman's classification of ca stomach

Giant Gastric ulcer

Q) Which of the following is true about giant gastric ulcer?

a) 70-80% of these ulcers  are malignant
b) By definition giant gastric ulcer is more than 1.5 cm in size
c) Medical therapy can heal 80% of  such ulcers
d) They are more common on the greater curvature and invade surrounding organs like spleen, liver etc

Answer for premium members

 

Bleeding Peptic ulcer

Q) In a patient with a bleeding peptic ulcer, endoscopy is done. Which of the following findings on endoscopy predicts the highest rate of re bleed?

a) Non bleeding vessel

b) Adherent clot

c) Flat pigmented spot

d) Clean base ulcer

Free Answer . Click here for stomach MCQs

a) Non bleeding vessel IIA - Out of the choices given

Bleeding peptic ulcer is mostly from the posterior surface of the lesion and can be sometimes lethal

Forrest classification is used to grade the risk of re bleeding in peptic ulcers.

According to the stigmata of recent bleed, the chances of re bleed increase.

Forrest Classification

Ia - Active Spurting

Ib-  Active oozing

IIa Non bleeding vessel             50% chance of rebleed

IIB Adherent clot

IIC Flat Pigmented spot

III Clean based ulcer

Sabiston 12o3 20th edition

 

 

Billroth 2 surgery

Q) What is true regarding complications of billroth 2 surgery?

a) It has less complications than billroth 1 surgery

b) Recurrent ulceration is more common in the afferent limb as compared to efferent limb.

c) Afferent loop obstruction is more common after billroth 2 surgery

d) Billroth I operation is preferred in scarred duodenum

Answer c -

In billroth 2 surgery, afferent limb obstruction is more common

In surgery for benign gastric ulcers, billroth I reconstruction is the preferred choice. Billroth II surgery has problems of

  1. Retained antrum syndrome
  2. Afferent loop obstruction
  3. Duodenal stump leak (1-3%)

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