Dumping Syndrome

Q) Late dumping syndrome is due to 

a) Excessive release of insulin

b) Food bolus in jejunum

c) Release of serotonin

d) Local enteric reflexes

Answer

a, Excessive release of Insulin 

Dumping syndrome are most common after billroth II gastrectomy followed by BI and Truncal vagotomy and gastro jejunostomy.

Dumping can occur 30 mins after food, (early dumping) or 2 hours after eating (late dumping). Early dumping has GI symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, epigastric fullness, diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Early dumping occurs due to rapid emptying of chyme in jejunum. This hyperosmolar fluid draws water from extracellular compartment to the lumen of small intestine causing intestinal distension and autonomic changes.Serotonin, bradykinin-like substances, neurotensin, and enteroglucagon are involved in early dumping.

Late dumping syndrome  has more cardiovascular symptoms such as palpitations, light headedness, dizziness, tachycardia, diaphoresis, flushing and blurred vision.

It occurs due to delivery of carbohydrates into jejunum, their absorption causes hyperglycemia and insulin release. Excessive insulin release leads to development of symptoms.

Treatment of Dumping syndrome

  1. Diet - Avoid carbohydrates, frequent small meals of protein and fat and separate liquids from solids
  2. surgery Conversion to Roux en Y

Ref Sabiston 1212

 

Borrmann’s classification for ca stomach

Q) According to Borrmann's Classification of Ca stomach Type II is

a) Fungating

b) Polypoid

c) Ulcerative

d) Infiltrative

Answer free

Ans  a

Fungating

Borrmann’s classification is for advanced gastric tumors. 

It is useful to distinguish between advanced and early gastric tumors because in advanced tumors neo adjuvant therapy improves over all survival.

The gross appearance of advanced gastric carcinomas can be divided into

Type I for polypoid growth

Type II for fungating growth,

Type III for ulcerating growth,

Type IV for diffusely infiltrating growth which is also referred to as linitisplastica 

advanced ca stomach
Borrman's classification of ca stomach

Billroth 2 surgery

Q) What is true regarding complications of billroth 2 surgery?

a) It has less complications than billroth 1 surgery

b) Recurrent ulceration is more common in the afferent limb as compared to efferent limb.

c) Afferent loop obstruction is more common after billroth 2 surgery

d) Billroth I operation is preferred in scarred duodenum

Answer c -

In billroth 2 surgery, afferent limb obstruction is more common

In surgery for benign gastric ulcers, billroth I reconstruction is the preferred choice. Billroth II surgery has problems of

  1. Retained antrum syndrome
  2. Afferent loop obstruction
  3. Duodenal stump leak (1-3%)

Read More ...