Q) Drug not used locally in recurrent low grade recurrence after Transurethral resection
Answer for free
Renal artery occlusion creates ischemia of the kidney which releases renin. Hypereninemia leads to secondary hypertension. This further leads to conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and vasocontriction and eventually release of aldosterone.
It is a disease of young adults and children
Size of the kidneys vary and diuretics do not control hypertension because the mechanism is high renin secretion which is unresponsive to diuretics.
Answer is b
N2a ipsilateral between 3-6 cm
Cervical lymph nodes are divided into (i) Submandibular (II) Upper jugular, (iii) Middle jugular (iv) Lower jugular and (v) Posterior triangle
Cancer of oral cavity and lips mainly go to lymph nodes I, II, and III
Tongue skip metastasis to level III and IV is common
Oropharynx - II, III, IV and contralateral
Ref: Bailey 709
a - Medullary carcinoma
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is a tumor that arises from the C cells ie the parafollicular cells and not from cells of thyroid follicles.
These are not TSH dependent and hence do not take up radioactive iodine
Hurthle cell carcinoma is a variation of follicular carcinoma only.
In these tumors lymph node involvement is about 60%
Bailey page 769
Discuss about Phyllodes tumor and their malignant potential.
EVLA is thermal ablation of varicose veins in which laser fibre is inserted in the lumen and ablation is done from inside. It is a good modality for primary and recurrent varicose veins and work in both long and short segments.
This treatment is not effective in cases where there is needle phobia or the veins are having excessive tortuousity or thrombophlebitis. This procedure is done under ultrasound guidance and wire is passed from the superficial to the deep veins.
Tumescent local anesthesia also helps
Ref Bailey: Page 909