Anti Rejection drugs

Q) Most nephrotoxic drug is 

A. Cyclosporine
B. Sirolimus
C. Azathioprine
D. Steroids


These are immunosuppressants used after solid organ transplants. These drugs have a lot of side effects.

Answer is here  



Q ) Hincheys grade III Diverticulitis. Management most likely to follow more interventions after an index operation is

a) Laparoscopic irrigation and exploration

b) Sigmoid Colectomy+Hartman’s

c) Primary repair with omental patch and peritoneal toilette

d )Sigmoid Colectomy with colorectal anastomosis and diverting ileostomy

Grade III diverticulitis is generalized peritonitis.

Answer for premium Q 10 

Duodenal injury

Q) Duodenal injury management false

a ) Circumferential skeletonization is required

b ) All duodenal repairs require some form of drainage

c) All hematomas near the pancreas requires exploration to check for serosal integrity

d) Most common location is the second portion


Colon Volvulus

Q) Regarding colonic volvulus all are true except

a) Sigmoid volvulus without gangrene – colonoscopic decompression is the trt of choice

b) Caecal bascule has high chance of gangrene due to torsion of mesentry

c) Splenic flexure volvulus has better prognosis than transverse colon volvulus

d) Recurrence rate after detorsion of cecal volvulus is 10-20%

Answer for premium members

Fontan Procedure

Q 24 Contraindication of Fontan procedure?

a) 20 year old male

b) Severe MR

c) Right pulmonary artery stenosis

d) Left ventricular end diastolic pressure of 20 mm Hg

24) d

Fontan procedure is for tricuspid atresia and is done when there is low pulmonary vascular resistance. For the same reason it is not done in neonates. 

In Tricuspid atresia, venous blood does not go to right ventricle and there is mixing of venous and arterial blood in aorta which leads to decreased oxygenation.

Most infants with tricuspid atresia have restrictive pulmonary blood flow.  To improve systemic oxygentaion they undergo modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, which is a small polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft to connect the subclavian artery and a pulmonary artery.

Criteria for Fontan procedure are 

  • Age older than 4 years
  • Sinus rhythm
  • Normal systemic venous return
  • Normal right atrial volume
  • Mean pulmonary artery pressure less than 15 mm 
  • Pulmonary arteriolar resistance less than 4 Wood units/m 2
  • Pulmonary artery–aorta ratio more than 0.75
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction more than 0.60

Current absolute contraindications are a pulmonary vascular resistance above 4 Wood units/m2, severe hypoplasia of the pulmonary arteries, and severe diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle.