Fontan Procedure

Q 24 Contraindication of Fontan procedure?

a) 20 year old male

b) Severe MR

c) Right pulmonary artery stenosis

d) Left ventricular end diastolic pressure of 20 mm Hg

24) d

Fontan procedure is for tricuspid atresia and is done when there is low pulmonary vascular resistance. For the same reason it is not done in neonates. 

In Tricuspid atresia, venous blood does not go to right ventricle and there is mixing of venous and arterial blood in aorta which leads to decreased oxygenation.

Most infants with tricuspid atresia have restrictive pulmonary blood flow.  To improve systemic oxygentaion they undergo modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, which is a small polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft to connect the subclavian artery and a pulmonary artery.

Criteria for Fontan procedure are 

  • Age older than 4 years
  • Sinus rhythm
  • Normal systemic venous return
  • Normal right atrial volume
  • Mean pulmonary artery pressure less than 15 mm 
  • Pulmonary arteriolar resistance less than 4 Wood units/m 2
  • Pulmonary artery–aorta ratio more than 0.75
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction more than 0.60

Current absolute contraindications are a pulmonary vascular resistance above 4 Wood units/m2, severe hypoplasia of the pulmonary arteries, and severe diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle.

Complications of duodenal diverticulum

Q) True statement regarding complications of duodenal diverticulum is

a) Perforation is the commonest complication

b) Obstruction is caused by extra luminal duodenal diverticulum

c) Bleeding is the most common complication of duodenal diverticulum.

d) Diverticulitis is common and easily diagnosed.

Answer

c

Complications of duodenal diverticulum are rare with a reported incidence of 5-10% in those with duodenal  diverticulum. Operative intervention is required in about 1% cases

Perforation is the rarest but the most severe complication of duodenum diverticulum. The most common cause of perforated duodenal diverticulum is diverticulitis. They perforate in the retroperitoneum, adding to diagnostic uncertainty. Ct Scans are most diagnostic to help in this diagnosis. Read More ...

Dumping Syndrome

Q) Late dumping syndrome is due to 

a) Excessive release of insulin

b) Food bolus in jejunum

c) Release of serotonin

d) Local enteric reflexes

Answer

a, Excessive release of Insulin 

Dumping syndrome are most common after billroth II gastrectomy followed by BI and Truncal vagotomy and gastro jejunostomy.

Dumping can occur 30 mins after food, (early dumping) or 2 hours after eating (late dumping). Early dumping has GI symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, epigastric fullness, diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Early dumping occurs due to rapid emptying of chyme in jejunum. This hyperosmolar fluid draws water from extracellular compartment to the lumen of small intestine causing intestinal distension and autonomic changes.Serotonin, bradykinin-like substances, neurotensin, and enteroglucagon are involved in early dumping.

Late dumping syndrome  has more cardiovascular symptoms such as palpitations, light headedness, dizziness, tachycardia, diaphoresis, flushing and blurred vision.

It occurs due to delivery of carbohydrates into jejunum, their absorption causes hyperglycemia and insulin release. Excessive insulin release leads to development of symptoms.

Treatment of Dumping syndrome

  1. Diet - Avoid carbohydrates, frequent small meals of protein and fat and separate liquids from solids
  2. surgery Conversion to Roux en Y

Ref Sabiston 1212

 

Compartment syndrome of limb

Q) All are true about compartment syndrome of limb except?

a) Diagnoses is unlikely if pulse is felt distally

b) There is pain on passive stretching of the limb

c) Pain is out of proportion to the signs

d) Muscles of calf and forearm are commonly involved

Answer 

As a result of trauma, pressure within limbs increase,..

Read on

Q Which of the following is not a criteria for diagnosing Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction

a) Common Bile Duct  diameter more than 12 mm on USG

b) Decrease in Common Bile Duct  pressure after infusion of Cholecystokinin

c) Ampullary pressure more than 40 mm Hg

d) Delayed emptying of contrast from Common Bile Duct after ERCP

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