Q) Simple nipple inversion is seen in?
a) Duct ectasia
c) Peri ductal fibrosis
d) Carcinoma breast
Inversion of nipple is seen in a lot of conditions, both benign and malignant. Common causes are
- Duct ectasia
- After breast Surgery
- Fat necrosis
- Mondor disease
- Chronic peri ductal mastitis
- Carcinoma breast
Rapid unilateral development of inversion of nipple is a dangerous sign and warrants further diagnosis. Further circumferential retraction is also sign of carcinoma.
Simple nipple inversion occurring at puberty or retracted nipple is of unknown cause and is bilateral in 25%. Mostly No treatment is required for this and condition resolves spontaneously during pregnancy and lactation.
Suction pumps and cosmetic surgery can also help.
Inversion of nipple associated with malignancy may be with or without the presence of lump. Associated discharge from the nipple can point to the diagnosis.
Ref - Bailey 801
Grading of benign nipple inversions for management
In grade I, the nipple is easily pulled out manually and maintains its projection quite well. It has minimal fibrosis thus, manual traction and a single, buried purse-string suture are enough for the correction.
Grade II (majority) the nipples can be pulled out but cannot maintain projection and tend to go back again. These nipples are thought to have moderate fibrosis beneath the nipple.
In grade III, to which the least number of inverted-nipple cases belong, the nipple can hardly be pulled out manually. Severe fibrosis made it impossible to reach optimal release of the fibrotic band with the preservation of the ducts.