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References from standard text books. Old and New. Including Sabiston 21 st edition
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AIIMS 2021, 23 aspirants cleared step 1 in GI And onco .
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Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in approximately 6% of patients after major abdominal operations and
It includes pneumonia/infection, respiratory failure requiring prolonged ventilation, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lobar/parenchymal collapse with or without associated effusion.
More recently, standard patient care protocols (e.g., iCough) have been developed to decrease the risk of pulmonary complications, which include incentive spirometry, coughing and deep breathing, oral care
(brushing teeth and using mouthwash), elevating the head of bed,
and getting out of bed three times a day.
Multimodal pain control
and judicious use of regional analgesia (e.g., thoracic epidurals) may
also help to prevent pulmonary complications in surgical patients.