Q) A 55 year old lady presents with vague pain in right lower abdomen. Physical examination reveals a well defined mass there which is non tender and freely mobile. It is non pulsatile as well. What is the most likely possibility?
a) Appendicular mass
b) Mesenteric cyst
c) Perforated tubo ovarian mass
d) Meckel's diverticulum
Mesenteric cysts are uncommon lesions found in this age group. It typically presents as a freely mobile mass which moves perpendicular to small blwel axis. It is painless as well.
Appendicular mass will have a preceding history of pain abdomen
Similarly perforated tubo ovarian mass will also have a history of pain
Meckel's diverticulum does not present as this kind of mass
Prominent intravascular pattern in the lymph node is suggestive of benign pathology and other features of malignany include, size more than 1 cm, well defined sharp borders, lost nodal pattern and hypoechoic consistency
Q) Not true about recurrent pyogenic cholangitis :
a) Mostly there are intrahepatic strictures with involvement of the left side duct
b) It can present as choledochoduodenal fistula
c) In it there is complete biliary obstruction which leads to marked jaundice and pruritis
d) MRCP and other other cholangiography can be diagnostic
In recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) complete obstruction does not occur and jaundice and pruritis is not marked. RPC is a disease commonly seen in young Asians (also known as oriental cholangiohepatitis) which leads to multiple strictures in extra or intrahepatic ducts.
Association with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis has been noted.
It can present as choledocholithiasis with stricture, choledochoduodenal fistula, acute pancreatitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis and can lead to cholangiocarcinoma.
MRCP can be diagnostic and is preferred because of its non invasive nature.
Flaps in plastic surgery are the cornerstone of management of skin and wound defects. Advancement flaps are used to cover skin defects in face, scalp and neck. Examples of advancement flaps are monopedicled flaps, bipedicled and V Y advancement flap.
Delay of flap is a surgical preconditioning, in which the blood supply is partially blocked prior to actual procedure. It increases the length of the flap as well as its uptake rate.
Transposition flap - used in head and neck surgery, a rectangular flap is rotated.
Q) True about Beger procedure for chronic pancreatitis
a) Posterior branch of gastro duodenal artery is preserved.
b) Beger procedure is a pancreatic head mass resection that can be done for small pancreatic tumors.
c)Intra pancreatic, choledochal and ampullary structures are removed.
d) Neck of the pancreas is not transected
Answer a) Posterior branch of GDA is preserved
Beger procedure for chronic pancreatitis is mostly done in Europe. Hans Beger in 1972 in Germany introduced this for chronic pancreatitis with inflammatory head mass. This is a complex procedure which removes head of the pancreas but leaves duodenum, a thin rim of pancreas around the medial aspect of duodenum and intrapancreatic bile duct intact.
The difference from similar Frey's procedure is that in Beger procedure neck of the pancreas is transacted where as in Frey, neck of the pancreas is not cut.
This procedure is not recommended if there is suspicion of carcinoma head of pancreas and Whipple is the procedure for that For Small tumors it can be used
Posterior branch of GDA is preserved in Beger Procedure.
Reconstruction is at two places: Distal pancreas and rim of the pancreas at medial side of duodenum.