Q) Degloving injury is one which involves stripping of which layers?
b) Skin, Subcutaneous fat
c) Skin, Subcutaneous fat and underlying fascia
d) All soft tissue upto bones
Q) Which of the following hemodynamic happens during pedicular clamping in liver transaction?
a) Systemic vascular resistance decreases by 20%
b) Mean arterial pressure decreases
c) Cardiac index decreases by 10%
d) Preload to the heart increases
c- Cardiac index decreases by 10%
Portal triad clamping is done to decrease blood loss during hepatic transaction. With the advancement in techniques in donor resection in living donor liver transplants, many centers are shifting away from this but in most centers this is still practiced.
Q) What is true regarding gastric conduits to be used as esophagus replacement?
a) The right gastric and gastro epiploic arteries can be safely divided to bring stomach to the neck
b) For malignant diseases stomach is the most reliable conduit
c) Stomach has the least incidence of developing reflux esophagitis
d) For benign esophageal strictures stomach is the conduit of choice
Q) A 37 year old lady with history of oral contraceptives undergoes a CT scan for pain lower abdomen which also revealed a solitary 6 cm lesion in segment VI of liver. Triple phase Ct scan shows a lesion which enhances in the arterial phase more at the margins and in the venous phase it moves towards the center. This lesion is :
a) Focal Nodular Hyperplasia
c) Hepatic Adenoma
d) Hepatocellular carcinoma
Answer is C
Hepatic Adenoma is benign neoplasms of the liver. They are associated with
Androgen containing steroids
Type I and III glycogen storage diseases
They are diagnosed on the basis of CT scans. Diagnostic features of CT Scan for hepatic adenoma are
Non contrast- Heterogenous hypodense mass with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis
Arterial phase shows rapid filling at the periphery then progressing to the center
Hepatocellular carccinoma shows - Rapid arterial filling with wash off in the portal venous phase
Hemangioma- Peripheral nodular enhancement
FNH- Central scar
Rf: Shackelford page 1564