Borrmann’s classification for ca stomach

Q) According to Borrmann's Classification of Ca stomach Type II is

a) Fungating

b) Polypoid

c) Ulcerative

d) Infiltrative

Borrmann’s pathologic classification of gastric cancer is  based on gross appearance.

Developed in 1926

Gastric carcinoma is divided into 5 types according to this classicifcation

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Ans  c

Ulcerative with elevated borders

Borrmann’s classification is for advanced gastric tumors. 

It is useful to distinguish between advanced and early gastric tumors because in advanced tumors neo adjuvant therapy improves over all survival.

The gross appearance of advanced gastric carcinomas can be divided into

Type I for polypoid growth or fungating 

Type II foUlcerated with elevated borders

Type III for ulcerating with invasion of wall

Type IV for diffusely infiltrating growth which is also referred to as linitis plastica 

Type V can not be classified

Ureteral injuries

Q) A 24 year old male suffers low velocity gun shot wound in lower abdomen. On exploration there is a 1 cm segment loss of left ureter above the pelvic brim. Best management is :

a) Ureterocystostomy

b) Uretero ureterostomy

c) Ureterostomy

d) Ligation of ureter 

Endocrine cells of pancreas

Q) Delta cells in the pancreas secrete

a) Insulin

b) Glucagon

c) Somatostatin

d) Secretin

Answer d

Somatostatin

Endocrine pancreas
Endocrine cells of pancreas

Pancreas- Endocrine functions

Beta cells form 65-80% of pancreatic endocrine cells and produce insulin

Alpha cells 12-20% and produce glucagon

Delta cells 3-10% and produce somatostatin

PP cells - Pancreatic polypeptide 1%

Somatostatin is an inhibitory hormone and inhibits most of the things

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