CT abdomen and X rays

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Q CT abdomen is equal to how many CXR
A. 100
B. 500
C. 1000
D. 1500


Neonate with symptomatic coarctation of aorta

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Q) In a Neonate with symptomatic coarctation of aorta, which of the following is acceptable method of repair?

a) Prosthetic patch aortoplasty

b) Resection with end to end anastomosis

c) Subclavian flap aortoplasty

d) Prosthetic tube graft repair

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Intestinal adaptation

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Q) Bowel segment showing best adaptation

a) Jejunum

b) Ileum

c) Colon

d) Duodenum

Cardiac Output monitoring

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Q . In a critically ill patient best way to monitor cardiac output  is by 
A. Pulmonary artery catheter
B. Pulmonary vein catheter
C. Femoral artery catheter
D. Subclavian vein catheter

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Spontaneous fistula closure

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Q) Which of the following is an Adverse factor hindering  spontaneous fistula closure:

a) Tract <1cm

b)Transferrin > 200

c) Location in esophagus

d) First surgery done in the same institution


a) Tract less than 1 cm

Spontaneous fistula closure

Short-turnover  protein (prealbumin,  retinol-binding  protein,  transferrin)  levels should  be  measured  at  least  weekly  to  assess  the  adequacy of  protein  delivery. An  ongoing  catabolic  state  will adversely  affect  short-turnover  protein  levels,  even  with maximal  protein  delivery.

Failure  of  an  enterocutaneous  fistula  to  close  spontaneously  is associated with acronym FRIENDS): 

the  presence  of  a foreign  body  within  the  tract  or  adjacent  to  it,  previous radiation  exposure  of  the  site,  ongoing  inflammation (most  commonly  from  Crohn  disease)  or  infection  that contributes  to  a  catabolic  state,  epithelialization  of  the fistula  tract  (particularly  if  the  fistula  tract  is  less  than 2  cm  long),  neoplasm,  distal  intestinal  obstruction,  and  pharmacologic  doses  of  steroids. 

Fistulas  associated  with  a concurrent  pancreatic  fistula  also  have  a  low  rate  of  spontaneous  closure,  as  do  those  occurring  in  the  presence  of  malnutrition  or  adjacent  infection.

In general,  anatomic  locations  that  are  favorable  for  closure  are  the  oropharynx,  esophagus,  duodenal  stump,  pancreas,  biliary  tree,  and  jejunum.

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Q) ASD most commonly associated with mitral insufficiency
a) Secundum defect
b) Sinus Venosus defect
c) Ostium primum
d) Coronary sinus defect