cancer of testis

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Q ) Most Common  cancer of testis in children is 
a. Yolk sac  tumor
b. Leydig cell tumor
c. Seminoma testis
d. Choriocarcinoma

85) a, Yolk sac tumor

yolk sac tumor is the most common testicular tumor in infants and children. Teratoma is the
most common tumor in prepubertal males. Yolk sac tumor is the testicular tumor with best
prognosis.

Choriocarcinoma occurs in second and third decade and is highly malignant. Leydig cell  tumor is the most common non-germ cell tumor of testis with bimodal distribution, first at 5-9 yrs of age and second incidence at 25-35 yrs of age.

(Smith)

Stress in surgery

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Q Things to do to decrease stress in surgery all except
a. Minimal invasive Surgery
b. Afferent block.
c. 8 hours fasting
d. Early mobilization

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Blood Supply SA Node

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Q) SA Node is supplied by which artery

a) Right coronary

b) Left coronary

c) Left circumflex

d) Anterior interventricular


Coronary arteries originate from ascending aorta, above the aortic valves from the aortic sinuses. Right coronary artery passes between the right atrial appendage and pulmonary trunk in the atrio ventricular septum and continues as .......................

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COA- Coarctation of Aorta

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Q) Not A complication of untreated coarctation of aorta
a) Endocarditis
b) CVA
c) Congestive heart failure
d) Pulmonary vascular disease


Coarctation of aorta is narrowing that diminishes the aortic lumen and produces an obstruction to the
flow of blood. In untreated patients complications might develop like endocarditis that occur at sites of
turbulent blood flow which is the site of narrowing,..........

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Crohn Activity Index

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Q) In Crohns disease activity index all are included except?

a) CRP

b) Abdominal pain

c) Hematocrit

d) Extra intestinal symptoms

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Crohn disease activity index is a medical tool, which helps to quantify the symptoms and problems of Crohn's disease

It helps to quantify the disease

It helps to assess.... (become a premium member to read more)

Hemorrhagic shock

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Q False in hemorrhagic shock
A. Low heart rate
B. Cold extremity
C. Due to fluid losses
D. Vascular resistance high

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Isotonic fluid

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Q) Isotonic fluid  solution is

A. Half normal saline
B. 1/5
th normal saline
C. Ringer lactate
D. Dextrose in Normal saline

Answer is free

Ringer lactate and Normal saline are isotonic fluid. they are useful in replacing GI losses. Ringer lactate has a bit of potassium as well.

Body actually requires bicarbonate and not lactate. Lactate is the more stable form in IV solutions and is used, it is converted by liver into bicarbonates.

Half NS is used in replacing losses when sodium concentration is high in the body, mainly as maintenance fluid

1/5th NS is hardly used clinically

Dextrose in Saline or DNS is used for maintenance and is not isotonic

Colon Volvulus

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Q) Regarding colonic volvulus all are true except

a) Sigmoid volvulus without gangrene – colonoscopic decompression is the treatment of choice

b) Caecal bascule has high chance of gangrene due to torsion of mesentary

c) Splenic flexure volvulus has better prognosis than transverse colon volvulus

d) Recurrence rate after detorsion of cecal volvulus is 10-20%

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