Colon cancer genetics

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 False in Colo Rectal Cancer  pathogenesis a) APC mutation FOR Aberrant crytpt foci formation b) KRAS for ACF to Early Adenom c) DCC for Intermediate to Late Adenoma d) P53 for Large Adenoma to CRC Answer for premium   

Acute mesenteric ischemia

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Q)  All are  findings in acute mesenteric ischemia findings except? a) Slow filling intramural vein b) Spasm of arterial arcade / distal vessels c) String of sausages/beaded appearance d) Dilated and ring enhancement of SMV in CT Answer   

Acute diverticulitis

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Q) False regarding the management of Acute Diverticulitis, Sigmoid colon inflammation and Fat stranding in CT  a) Outpatient treatment in most cases b) Do a colonoscopy after the resolution of acute symptoms c) Elective Colectomy to be done d) IV antibiotics to be started`   Answer Free  c Sigmoid diverticulitis can be complicated and uncomplicated Complicated means diverticulum associated with abscess, perforation, obstruction, fistula  This question is about an uncomplicated acute diverticulitis 

SMA syndrome

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Q True in SMA syndrome Causes Medial Arcuate Ligament syndrome Causes nut cracker syndrome Low AM distance and Narrow AM angle <25 degree is sensitive finding It can be treated by releasing the DJ and keeping duodenum to the right of the artery Answer   

GIST Stomach

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Q ) Antral GIST 1cm incidentally found on UGIE. True regarding its management a) Surgical resection resection of GIST (More questions on GIST here)  b) Endoscopic resection c) Resection required if EUS suggests irregular border with cystic spaces d) Endoscopic surveillance, if size >2cm then resect Answer ( You need to be a premium member to see this)  GIST are usually found in the stomach (40% to 60%), small intestine (30%), and colon (15%). Clinically they appear  in patients older than 50 years. They generally have an equal male-to-female ratio or a slight male predominance. They are rarely associated with familial syndromes such as GISTparaganglioma syndrome (Carney triad), neurofibromatosis 1, and von Hippel-Lindau disease, but most develop de novo. 

natural history breast cancer

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Q. True about breast cancer is? a) Doubling time of breast tumor is 1 month b) Skip metastasis in level iii lymph nodes is common c) Lungs are commonly involved by direct invasion d) Dimpling of skin is due to shortening of cooper’s ligaments Ans 

Vascular

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Q  Engorged dilated Riolan arc vessel with retrograde flow suggests a) SMA occlusion b) IMA occlusion c) Normal flow d) Iliac artery occlusion Answer  

Hyperbaric oxygen

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 Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in radiation proctitis all are true except A. Indicated in acute radiation proctitis but not in subacute or chronic radiation proctitis B. Oxygen increases the growth of residual tumor and hence tumor should be completely resected C. Complications include Parkinsonism, barotrauma D. Usually 30-40 sessions are required for treatment  a Hyperbaric oxygen overcomes chronic tissue hypoxia in radiation damaged tissues and with repeated sessions induces growth of regenerative tissue, capillaries, and epithelium. Successful therapy may take multiple sessions.  18 to 60 treatments Ref Shackelford page 2211 HBO treatments for hypoxic wounds are usually delivered at 1.9 to 2.5 atm for sessions of 90 to 120 minutes each. Treatments are given once daily, five to six times per week and should be given as an adjunct to surgical or medical therapies. Clinical evidence of wound improvement should be noted after 15 to 20 treatments.