Primary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in young patients without significant lung disease, whereas secondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in patients with COPD.
The most common cause of primary spontaneous pneumothorax is rupture of small apical blebs. Tube thoracostomy with water seal drainage is the usual first-line treatment of a moderate-to-large pneumothorax in a patient with a first-time occurrence
Butyrate For the fermentable complex carbohydrates available, colonic flora produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).
Butyrate, an SCFA, is the principal source of nutrition for the colonocyte.
Mammalian cells do not produce butyrate, the colonic epithelium and luminal bacteria form an essential and elegant symbiotic relationship.
Antibiotics disrupt this cohabitation—decreased bacteria leads to less butyrate, which, in turn, negatively affects colonocyte function leading to diarrhea.