EUS in pancreatic cancer

Q) What is true about the role of EUS in Carcinoma head of pancreas.

a) It has a sensitivity of 50-60% in detecting lesions less than 3 cm in size

b) It has a  high negative predictive  value

c) Chronic pancreatitis can be easily differentiated from Carcinoma head of pancreas by EUS

d) Small caliber needles have low accuracy than high caliber needles in FNAC

 

 

Complications of Billroth 2 surgery

Billroth 1 and 2

Q) What is true regarding complications of Billroth 2 surgery?

a) It has less complications than Billroth 1 surgery

b) Recurrent ulceration is more common in the afferent limb as compared to efferent limb.

c) Afferent loop obstruction is more common after Billroth 2 surgery

d) Billroth I operation is preferred in scarred duodenum

Answer c -

In Billroth 2 surgery, afferent limb obstruction is more common

In Billroth 1 reconstruction The remnant is anastomosed  to the duodenum

In Billroth 2 duodenum stump is closed and stomach is anastomosed to the jejunum limb

Advantages of Billroth 1 

  1. More Physiological as normal GI continuity is maintained
  2. No problem of afferent and efferent limb
  3. Future procedures like endoscopy and ERCP can be done
  4. Reduced chance of gastric carcinoma in remnant stomach as compared to Billroth 2  ( SKF page 682) 

In surgery for benign gastric ulcers, Billroth I reconstruction is the preferred choice.


Billroth II surgery has problems of

  1. Retained antrum syndrome
  2. Afferent loop obstruction
  3. Duodenal stump leak (1-3%)

Billroth 2 surgery is done when there is

1. Inadequate mobility of the duodenum

2. Scarring of duodenum

Complications of gastric surgery
Complications of gastrectomy

  1. Nutritional and weight loss - Iron deficiency, Copper deficiency, Vit B12 , Anemia
  2. Delayed gastric emptying
  3. Roux statsis- Seen in roux en y loops-  Pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating
  4. Cholelithiasis-  Higher incidence in roux en y reconstruction as compared to B1 and B 2 gastrectomy
  5. Recurrent ulceration

Complications of Billroth 2 surgery

  1. Dumping syndrome Dumping symptoms have been reported in up to 70% of Billroth II patients and up to 75% of patients after RYGBP
    for obesity.
  2. Afferent loop obstruction - It can be minimized by keeping the length of afferent loop less than 20 cm and using a retrocloic approach.
  3. Bile reflux gastritis - More common with billroth I and billroth 2 surgery, incidence is decreasing after the use roux en y anastomosis


Shackelford's Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, 2 Volume Set: Expert Consult - Online and Print

 

Q)  Billroth 1 gastrectomy all are  true except-

a) Normal anatomy of  duodenum is preserved

b) ERCP can still be performed

c) Avoiding efferent and afferent limb problem

d) No risk for gastric cancer because of decreased alkaline reflux

Answer 

 

Surgery Trauma MCQ

Q ) A 25 year old male brought to the hospital  after being involved in a road traffic accident that occurred 50 minutes ago. His  initial BP at the scene of accident was  80/40 mm HG with a pulse rate of 120/min.

The paramedics administered 2 litres of normal saline in the ambulance and in the emergency department his BP is 110/70 with a pulse rate of 90/min.

He has tenderness in Left upper quadrant abdomen and USG reveals perisplenic fluid. Next step is to : ( #See more trauma MCQS) 

a) Take him for exploratory laparotomy

b) Shift him to ICU and observe

c) Do a CT scan of the abdomen

d) Put in a laparoscope and assess

Answer c

This Patient has a splenic injury due to blunt trauma abdomen. The  immediate management  depends on grade of splenic  injury  and response to IV Fluids. This patient is hemodynamically stable after IV fluids  and immediate laparotomy is not needed.

Direct shifting to ICU is also not the right choice because CT is required first and for more severe injuries patient can go to OT

Laparoscopy has no role in splenic injuries

EUS criteria of malignant lymph node

Q) One of the following is not a criteria of malignancy in lymph node on EUS

a) Size more than 1 cm

b) Prominent intranodal vasculature

c) Sharp well defined  borders

d) Hypoechoic