Fuel for colonocytes

Q) Primary fuel for colonocytes is 

a) Glucose

b) Lactate

c) Butyrate

d) Fats

Ans c ) Butyrate

Butyrate For the fermentable complex carbohydrates available, colonic flora produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

Butyrate, an SCFA, is the principal source of nutrition for the colonocyte.
Mammalian cells do not produce butyrate, the colonic epithelium and luminal bacteria form an essential and elegant symbiotic relationship.

Antibiotics disrupt this cohabitation—decreased bacteria leads to less butyrate, which, in turn, negatively affects colonocyte function leading to diarrhea.

Lymphatic Spread carcinoma Prostate

Q) Most common lymph node involved in carcinoma prostate is
a. Obturator
b. Iliac
c. Periprostatic
d. Perivesical

a ✅

Lymphatic spread may occur (1) via lymphatic vessels passing to the obturator fossa or along the sides of the rectum to the lymph nodes beside the internal iliac vein and in the hollow
of the sacrum

Also lymphatics that pass over the seminal vesicles and follow the vas deferens for a short distance to
drain into the external iliac lymph nodes.

From retroperitoneal lymph nodes, the mediastinal nodes and occasionally the supraclavicular nodes may become implicated.

Bailey page 1468

Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma & its Risk Factors

Q) Which of the following is not a risk factor/ least associated with small bowel adenocarcinoma ?

a) Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

b) Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

c) Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

d) Juvenile polyposis coli


MOre Questions on Small Bowel Q 1-5

 

Ans

d

Juvenile Polyposis Coli is least associated with small bowel adenocarcinoma

Risk factors for Small bowel Adenocarcinoma are 

  1. Hereditary polyps - familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), hereditary nonpolyposis
    colorectal cancer, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

2.  Crohn disease, gluten-sensitive enteropathy (i.e., celiac sprue), prior peptic ulcer disease, cystic fibrosis, and biliary diversion (i.e., previous cholecystectomy).

3. Lifestyle

Smoking, heavy alcohol consumption (>80 g/day of ethanol), and consumption of red meat or salted food

4. Genetic -

Kras,  5q (APC gene), 17q (p53 gene), and 18q  and DPC4 , SMAD 4, MSI H

Sabiston page 1274

 

Virchow’s triad

Q) Which of the following does not form a part of Virchow's triad?

a) Endothelial damage

b) Slow blood flow

c) Platelet defects

d) Hypercoagulable state


"More Questions on Periop Management"

c Platelet defects

Virchow triad (venous stasis, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability) describes the factors contributing to venous clot formation and thromboembolism

Platelet defects are associated with arterial thrombosis and not venous

He is known as "the father of modern pathology" and as the founder of social medicine, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine"

Antigen Presenting cells

Q) Most potent cells that present antigen and are distributed throughout the lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of the body are??

a) Dendritic cells

b) Natural killer cells

c) Macrophages

d) Monocytes

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Ans a 

Dendritic cells are specialized macrophages that are regarded as professional APCs. They are the most potent cells that present antigen

NK cells ( part of innate immunity) are large granular lymphocytes with potent cytolytic function that constitute a critical component of innate immunity.

Sabiston 575

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Paclitaxel group drugs

Q)  Which group of drug paclitaxel belongs to ? 
a) Drugs which interfere with mitosis
b) Antimetabolites ( those which interfere with DNA synthesis)
c) Drugs which directly damage DNA
d) Inhibitor of  receptor tyrosine kinase


Check Questions from Neet onco 2020 exam

 Drugs in onco  asked in exams

Ans a )

Paclitaxel is a drug which interferes with mitosis. It is a class of drug which interferes with mitosis
Vincristine is also in the same group but it interferes with formation of microtubules ( Spindle poison)
Antimetabolites are 5 FU, Methotrexate, Gemcitabine
Drugs which damage DNA Mitomycin , Cisplatin, oxaliplatin, doxorubicin
Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor are Imatinib, Geftinib
ref page 156 Bailey 

Trace elements deficiency

Q ) Which of the following trace elements deficiency causes impaired glucose tolerance, anemia, neutropenia and leukopenia ( Question as per NEET SS 22 Syllabus) 

a) Zinc

b) copper

c) Molybdenum

d) Selenium

MCQs on Nutrition and Periop management

Ans ) B Copper

Copper Promotes cross-linking of collagen and elastin synthesis and  scavenges free radical

Its deficiency causes Skeletal demineralization, impaired glucose tolerance, anemia, neutropenia,
leukopenia, changes in skin and hair pigmentation also it is linked to fatal arrhythmias

Ref Sabiston 21 st page 110

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