Bariatric Surgery

Q)  False regarding Bariatric surgery

a) VBG produces less weight loss when compared to RYGB

b) Jejuno-ileal by-pass not done nowadays.

c) Dumping is due to non- compliance of dietary advice

d) LAGB requires once a 4-6wk follow up

Answer (free)

c
Calorie restriction is responsible for long term weight loss and its beneficial effects such as control of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and other metabolic abnormalities.
Restrictive procedures are LSG and  LAGB  which decrease the appetite and induce early satiety.           
The RYGB (ROUX en Y  gastric bypass ) is  a malabsorptive procedure  with long term sustained weight loss.
Mechanism of weight loss after bariatric surgery
Ghrelin is orexigenic gut hormone, which increases appetite. After food intake ghrelin levels fall and appetite decreases.
After restrictive surgery such as LYGB and LSG, ghrelin levels fall and appetite decreases.
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG) This procedure has been abandoned in favor of other operations because of poor long-term weight loss, a high rate of late stenosis of the gastric outlet, and a tendency for patients to adopt a highcalorie liquid diet, thereby leading to regain of weight. Choice a is correct

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Annular pancreas

Management of annular pancreas

Q) All are true about annular pancreas except ( AIIMS GI Surgery Question bank)

a) They are mostly asymptomatic

b) It has equal incidence in children and adults

c) Treatment of choice is duodenojejunostomy

d) Associated with Down's syndrome


 Answer c

Annular pancreas is a congenital malformation but manifestations can appear in the adult life.

Annulus means a ring of pancreatic tissue around the duodenum. For annular pancreas to be diagnosed, this ring can be complete or incomplete.

Embryological basis

Normally the ventral buds of pancreas and  dorsal bud fuses together. Non rotation and fusion of these two leads to the formation of annular pancreas. It envelops the  2nd part of duodenum.

Age of presentation

Incidence is equal in both adults and children

Presentation in children is congenital anomalies and duodenal obstruction

Presents in adults as pancreatitis usually in 3rd or 4th decade

Association with other pancreatic conditions

1. Pancreas  divisum 35- 40%

2. Chronic pancreatitis 45- 50%

Other GI conditions

Annular pancreas is a possible etiology of congenital duodenal obstruction and is associated with other congenital anomalies such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and imperforate anus.

Clinical Fetaures

Of those seen as adults, 75%were seen with pain

22% were diagnosed with pancreatitis

24%) had gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that included vomiting,

11%had obstructive jaundice and/or abnormal liver function test results.

Ref BG page 869

Treatment

It is duodenal bypass and not resection of duodenum as duodenum excision can lead to pancreatitis

in children its duodeno - duodenostomy

in adults duodenoduodenostomy which has now replaced duodenojejunostomy

Sabiston

 

 

 

 

Splenectomy

Q1. Which of the following is not an indication for splenectomy in Non Hodgkin Lymphoma?
 
a)  Massive splenomegaly
b) Signs of hypersplenism
c) Diagnosing and staging of isolated splenic disease

d) All are indications for splenectomy

Ans  Free

BISAP Score In Pancreatitis

Q) All are components in BISAP score except?

a) Age more than 60 years

b) WBC more than 16000

c) GCS <15

d) BUN > 25 mg/dl


Ans )b

The Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis  BISAP is a more-recent score than the older Ranson's Criteria. It predicts mortality risk in pancreatitis with fewer variables than Ranson's.

It does not require data points from 48 hours into a patient's hospital admission.

It includes

BUN > 25 mg/dL (8.9 mmol/L) :
Abnormal mental status with a Glasgow coma score < 15 :
Evidence of SIRS :
> 60 years old :
Pleural effusion :

Radiation proctitis

Q) In radiation proctitis surgery is needed in all except 

a) Pain Abdomen

b) Rectal stricture

c) Haemorrhage

d) Vesical Fistula

Free Question on management of raiation proctiitis 

Ans a, NOT indicated  for pain

Acute Radiation proctitis - Occurs within 6 mths of starting the treatment

Chronic - After 6 mths, Most patients develop symptoms at a median of 8 to 12 months after completion of radiotherapy

Modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group rectal toxicity scale

Grade 1 Mild and self-limiting Minimal, infrequent bleeding or clear mucus discharge, rectal discomfort not requiring analgesics, loose stools not requiring medications
Grade 2 Managed conservatively, lifestyle (performance status) not affected Intermittent rectal bleeding not requiring regular use of pads, erythema of rectal lining on proctoscopy, diarrhea requiring medications
Grade 3 Severe, alters patient lifestyle Rectal bleeding requiring regular use of pads and minor surgical intervention, rectal pain requiring narcotics, rectal ulceration
Grade 4 Life threatening and disabling Bowel obstruction, fistula formation, bleeding requiring hospitalization, surgical intervention required

Prevention

  1. Use of newer conformal radiation therapy techniques.
  2. Amifostine is a prodrug that is metabolized to a thiol metabolite that is thought to scavenge reactive oxygen species
  3. Placebo-controlled phase III trials have detected no benefit from either topical or oral sucralfate.

Treatment  of radiation proctitis 

Medical

  1. Butyrates
  2. ASA
  3. Sucralfate
  4. Metronidazole
  5. Short chain FA
  6. Topical formalin
  7. Hyperbaric o2

Endoscopic

  1. dilatation
  2. Heater and bipolar cautrey
  3. ND YAG
  4. APC
  5. RFA

Surgery

Diverting ostomies for severe stricture - Better for incontinence, stricture and limited benefit  for bleed

Reconstruction with Flaps -  rectourethral or rectovaginal fistula with a pedunculated gracilis or a Martius flap to facilitate healing by introducing well-vascularized healthy tissue,

Proctectomy  complicated fistulous disease, especially when accompanied by significant pain and incontinence, or in cases of severe and intractable bleeding

Blood supply of CBD

Q) CBD is supplied by all except (AIIMS NOV 18)
a Cystic art
b RHA
c LHA
d Anterosuperior pancreaticoduodenal artery

Ans

c

Its c
As per sackhelford CBD is supplied by
Cystic duct,RHA,retroduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

Shackelford-1253

 

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