Radiation proctitis

Q) In radiation proctitis surgery is needed in all except 

a) Pain Abdomen

b) Rectal stricture

c) Haemorrhage

d) Vesical Fistula

Free Question on management of raiation proctiitis 

Ans a, NOT indicated  for pain

Acute Radiation proctitis - Occurs within 6 mths of starting the treatment

Chronic - After 6 mths, Most patients develop symptoms at a median of 8 to 12 months after completion of radiotherapy

Modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group rectal toxicity scale

Grade 1 Mild and self-limiting Minimal, infrequent bleeding or clear mucus discharge, rectal discomfort not requiring analgesics, loose stools not requiring medications
Grade 2 Managed conservatively, lifestyle (performance status) not affected Intermittent rectal bleeding not requiring regular use of pads, erythema of rectal lining on proctoscopy, diarrhea requiring medications
Grade 3 Severe, alters patient lifestyle Rectal bleeding requiring regular use of pads and minor surgical intervention, rectal pain requiring narcotics, rectal ulceration
Grade 4 Life threatening and disabling Bowel obstruction, fistula formation, bleeding requiring hospitalization, surgical intervention required

Prevention

  1. Use of newer conformal radiation therapy techniques.
  2. Amifostine is a prodrug that is metabolized to a thiol metabolite that is thought to scavenge reactive oxygen species
  3. Placebo-controlled phase III trials have detected no benefit from either topical or oral sucralfate.

Treatment  of radiation proctitis 

Medical

  1. Butyrates
  2. ASA
  3. Sucralfate
  4. Metronidazole
  5. Short chain FA
  6. Topical formalin
  7. Hyperbaric o2

Endoscopic

  1. dilatation
  2. Heater and bipolar cautrey
  3. ND YAG
  4. APC
  5. RFA

Surgery

Diverting ostomies for severe stricture - Better for incontinence, stricture and limited benefit  for bleed

Reconstruction with Flaps -  rectourethral or rectovaginal fistula with a pedunculated gracilis or a Martius flap to facilitate healing by introducing well-vascularized healthy tissue,

Proctectomy  complicated fistulous disease, especially when accompanied by significant pain and incontinence, or in cases of severe and intractable bleeding

Blood supply of CBD

Q) CBD is supplied by all except (AIIMS NOV 18)
a Cystic art
b RHA
c LHA
d Anterosuperior pancreaticoduodenal artery

Ans

c

Its c
As per sackhelford CBD is supplied by
Cystic duct,RHA,retroduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

Shackelford-1253

 

Complications of Meckel’s diverticulum

Q. Least common complication of Meckel's diverticulum (NEET 2018) 

a) Bleeding

b) Obstruction

c) Neoplasm

d) Obstruction

Answer is free 
7) c Neoplasm

The most common clinical presentation of Meckel’s diverticulum is gastrointestinal bleeding, which occurs in 25% to 50% of patients who present with complications

intestinal obstruction occur as a result of a volvulus of the small bowel around a diverticulum associated with a fibrotic band attached to the abdominal wall, intussusception, or, rarely, incarceration of the diverticulum in an inguinal hernia (Littre hernia)

Diverticulitis accounts for 10% to 20% of symptomatic presentations.

Neoplasms can also occur in a Meckel’s diverticulum, with NET as the most common malignant neoplasm (77%). Other histologic types include adenocarcinoma (11%), which generally originates from the gastric mucosa, and GIST (10%) and lymphoma (1%).

Sabiston -1285

Acute diverticulitis

Q) False regarding the management of Acute Diverticulitis, Sigmoid colon inflammation and Fat stranding in CT 

a) Outpatient treatment in most cases

b) Do a colonoscopy after the resolution of acute symptoms

c) Elective Colectomy to be done

d) IV antibiotics to be started`

Answer Free  c

Sigmoid diverticulitis can be complicated and uncomplicated

Complicated means diverticulum associated with abscess, perforation, obstruction, fistula 

This question is about an uncomplicated acute diverticulitis 

Read More ...

Hyperbaric oxygen

Q)  Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in radiation proctitis all are true except
A. Indicated in acute radiation proctitis but not in subacute or chronic radiation proctitis
B. Oxygen increases the growth of residual tumor and hence tumor should be completely
resected
C. Complications include Parkinsonism, barotrauma
D. Usually 30-40 sessions are required for treatment


 a

Hyperbaric oxygen overcomes chronic tissue hypoxia in radiation damaged tissues and with repeated sessions induces growth of regenerative tissue, capillaries, and epithelium. Successful therapy may take multiple sessions.
 18 to 60 treatments

Ref Shackelford page 2211

HBO treatments for hypoxic wounds are usually delivered at 1.9 to 2.5 atm

for sessions of 90 to 120 minutes each. Treatments are given once daily, five to six times per week and should be given as an adjunct to surgical or medical therapies. Clinical evidence of wound improvement should be noted after 15 to 20 treatments. Read More ...

Pancreatic protocol CT

Q) All are true about pancreatic protocol CT except (AIIMS 2012) 

a) > 90% unresectable lesions picked up by CT

b) Dual phase CT with cuts taken at 40 secs and 70 secs

c) Liver metastasis detected in early arterial phase

d)

Answer is free for all 

c

Pancreatic protocol CT involves  imaging  at  the  pancreatic  phase (i.e.,  approximately  45  seconds  after  contrast  administration)  and  at  the  portal  venous  phase  (i.e.,  approximately 70  seconds  after  contrast  administration). It is useful for detection of adenocarcinoma of pancreas. 

Metastatic lesions are seen in  the  portal  venous  phase,  because  the  lesions  are  not  typically  well  vascularized.

  Arterial  phase images  are  principally  used  to  distinguish  metastatic  disease from  benign  vascular  lesions,  such  as  hemangiomas,  or  to  better define  the  arterial  anatomy  of  the  liver.

Non contrast phase used for  Read More ...