Q) Which of the following is true about screening in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC Cancer)
a) Alpha feto protein should be done 6 monthly
b) Ultrasound abdomen should be done 6 monthly
c) Candidates for liver transplant should be screened every 3 months
d) Nodules more than 2 cm should be followed up more regularly
Cirrhosis is prone for development of HCC. Screeing has to be stringrnt. Earlier ultrasound of liver and alpha feto protein were both used for screening
In 2009 Marrero et al demonstrated the suboptimal accuracy of AFP and after that it has been removed from the screening protocol and now only ultrasound is being done.
The screening recommendation is not for those patients with severe associated conditions and with advanced liver disease who are already considered for transplant. So there is no screening for those who are already listed. Nodules more than 1 cm are highly suspicious where as in nodules less than 1 cm only 40% will be malignant.
Q) Not true about recurrent pyogenic cholangitis :
a) Mostly there are intrahepatic strictures with involvement of the left side duct
b) It can present as choledochoduodenal fistula
c) In it there is complete biliary obstruction which leads to marked jaundice and pruritis
d) MRCP and other other cholangiography can be diagnostic
In recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) complete obstruction does not occur and jaundice and pruritis is not marked. RPC is a disease commonly seen in young Asians (also known as oriental cholangiohepatitis) which leads to multiple strictures in extra or intrahepatic ducts.
Association with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis has been noted.
It can present as choledocholithiasis with stricture, choledochoduodenal fistula, acute pancreatitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis and can lead to cholangiocarcinoma.
MRCP can be diagnostic and is preferred because of its non invasive nature.