Anti rejection drugs

Q) Anti Rejection medicine which also prevents tumor recurrence? MCH Questions ...

a) M tor inhibitors

b) IL2 blockers

c) Steroids

d) Azathioprine

Ans a) mtor inhibitors 

One Question is always asked about anti rejection medicines, Salient points i am enumerating

  1. Three drug regimen is classic includes IL2 blocker, Mycophenolate and steroids which are tapered . IL 2 blocker  Tacrolimus is used more than Cyclosporine ( cyclosporine less used now). IL2 blocker side effects are hirsutism, hyperkalemia, gum hypertrophy etc) 
  2. Mycophenolate is preferred over azathioprine . Both cause fall in cell lines
  3. Steroids have many side effects like weight gain, cataract, infections and are used in tapering dose

M-tor inhibitors are sirolimus and Everolimus which are used when transplant is done for HCC, IT has anti tumor action.

Paget disease of Breast

Q) True regarding Paget's disease of the breast
A. Seen in 5-10% Carcinoma  breast
B. 50-60% associated with underlying mass
C. Treated by MRM always

d) Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice

Ans b 50% have underlying mass 

Paget disease accounts for 1% or less of breast malignancies. It is characterized clinically by nipple erythema and irritation with
associated pruritus and may progress to crusting and ulceration. ( Sabiston page 860)

Paget disease is a condition of the nipple that is commonly associated with an underlying breast cancer  More than 95% of patients with Paget disease have an underlying breast carcinoma. Paget disease may be accompanied by a palpable mass in slightly more than 50% of Epidermal layer of skin is involved. Clinically, dermatitis occurs that may appear eczematoid and moist or dry and psoriatic.

Treatment of Paget disease

(i) mastectomy with axillary staging 

(ii) wide local excision of the nipple and areola to achieve clear margins, axillary staging, and radiation therapy. 

Prognosis Carcinoma thyroid

Q) Not an important prognostic factor in Carcinoma thyroid (JIPMER) 
A. Age
B. Completeness of resection
C. Multicentricity
D. Extra thyroid extension

Ans c

MOst of the papillary carcinoma are multicentric any way

As per AGES And AMES criteria.

HIgh risk - Male. Age more than 40 years, Size more than 4 cm, Capsular or extra thyroid extension, Regional or distant metastasis and poor differentiation

Low Risk - Well differentiated less than 2 cm. Age benefit is extended to 50 yrs in women

Ref ( Sabiston page page 903) 

IN younger patients (<45 years old), the presence of lymph node metastases had no effect on the excellent overall survival, but the presence of lymph node metastases increased the risk of death by 46% in patients older than 45

The presence of lymph node metastasis in patients with contained intrathyroidal primary papillary carcinoma also does not affect
long-term survival.

If there is gross or microscopic extension of a primary PTC through the thyroid capsule, a poor prognosis and
possibly a higher rate of lymph node metastasis may be anticipated.

Axilla management in CA breast

Q) 47 year old premenopausal lady with a 3X 3cm left breast lump with IDC grade III, TNBC.

On examination, there is a  single subcentimetric mobile soft mobile ipsilateral  axillary LN palpable.

Usg nodes no loss of hilum.  Management of axilla? Ans is free

a) SlND

b) ALND

c) Radiotherapy only

d) No treatment

Ans a

Selective lymph node dissection

ACOSOG Z0011 trial 0  (stages I and II) in patients who undergo breast conservation therapy, axillary lymph node dissection does not improve locoregional controlor survival.

This trial has demonstrated the safety of limiting axillary surgery to the SLNB without performing formal axillary dissection for sentinel node positivity.

This  avoids of the  morbidity of the axillary dissection.

If nodes positive the patient should receive adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Round cell tumors

Q) 12 yr old girl fever diaphyseal femur mass . Round cell tumor. PAS+VE diastase
sensitive AIIMS onco 2020 ( free Answer) 

A. Ewing's sarcoma 
B. Osteosarcoma
C. Chondroblastoma
D. Chondrosarcoma

Ans a) Ewing

On the basis of round cell pattern tumor classification is 

  1. Diffuse round cell pattern

    1. Ewing's sarcoma

    2. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)

    3. Merkel cell carcinoma

    4. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS)

    5. Small cell carcinoma

    6. Lymphoma

    7. Leukemic infiltrate.

  2. Septate or lobulated round cell pattern

    1. Small round cells are divided by fibrous/fibrovascular septate

    2. Ewing's sarcoma

    3. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS).

According to size of round cell

  1. Small round cell – Squamous cell carcinoma, PNET, Ewing's sarcoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Langerhans cell disease, lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma

  2. Large round cell – Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, melanoma, RMS, lymphoid tumors, paraganglioma.

Loss of cell Surface antigen

Q) Loss of cell surface antigen is a feature of 
A. CIS
B. NO RELATION WITH GRADE
C. LOW GRADE TUMOR
D. HIGH GRADE TUMOR

Ans d High grade

The ABO(H) blood group system consists of terminal oligosaccharide antigens carried by glycoproteins or glycolipids in hematopoietic or epithelial cells 

Their biosynthesis is presumed to be controlled by the ABO(H), Se, H, Le, and X blood group genes .

These antigens are present on normal bladder epithelium of secretor individuals but not on some low-grade and early-stage papillary urothelial carcinomas 

Moreover, initially expressing tumours lose these cell surface antigens upon local recurrence, progression to invasion or metastization 

Malignant features of salivary gland tumors

Q) What is not a clinical feature of malignant conversion of salivary gland tumor? 

a) Pain 

b) Facial nerve weakness

c) Swelling

d) Cervical lymph node swelling

Ans a

Clinical features of high-grade malignant salivary tumours include

1. facial nerve weakness

2. rapid enlargement of the swelling; 

3. induration and/or ulceration of the overlying skin;

4. cervical node enlargement.

Ref Bailey 27th page 783

Most of these tumors are painless

More Questions Head and Neck onco 

 

Lymph nodes in neck

Q) Most common site for lymph node spread is ? (head and neck Onco) 

a) Tongue

b) Lip

c) NAsopharynx

d) Glottis

Ans c

 Primary sites within the pharynx (i.e., nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx) and supraglottic larynx  are particularly high risk.

The oral cavity has an intermediate risk,

whereas the glottic larynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses are low risk. Other predictors of risk of metastases are higher T stage and thickness (in case of oral cavity cancers).