Axilla management in CA breast

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Q) 47 year old premenopausal lady with a 3X 3cm left breast lump with IDC grade III, TNBC.

On examination, there is a  single subcentimetric mobile soft mobile ipsilateral  axillary LN palpable.

Usg nodes no loss of hilum.  Management of axilla? Ans is free

a) SlND

b) ALND

c) Radiotherapy only

d) No treatment

Ans a

Selective lymph node dissection

ACOSOG Z0011 trial 0  (stages I and II) in patients who undergo breast conservation therapy, axillary lymph node dissection does not improve locoregional controlor survival.

This trial has demonstrated the safety of limiting axillary surgery to the SLNB without performing formal axillary dissection for sentinel node positivity.

This  avoids of the  morbidity of the axillary dissection.

If nodes positive the patient should receive adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Round cell tumors

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Q) 12 yr old girl fever diaphyseal femur mass . Round cell tumor. PAS+VE diastase
sensitive AIIMS onco 2020 ( free Answer) 

A. Ewing's sarcoma 
B. Osteosarcoma
C. Chondroblastoma
D. Chondrosarcoma

Ans a) Ewing

On the basis of round cell pattern tumor classification is 

  1. Diffuse round cell pattern

    1. Ewing's sarcoma

    2. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)

    3. Merkel cell carcinoma

    4. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS)

    5. Small cell carcinoma

    6. Lymphoma

    7. Leukemic infiltrate.

  2. Septate or lobulated round cell pattern

    1. Small round cells are divided by fibrous/fibrovascular septate

    2. Ewing's sarcoma

    3. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS).

According to size of round cell

  1. Small round cell – Squamous cell carcinoma, PNET, Ewing's sarcoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Langerhans cell disease, lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma

  2. Large round cell – Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, melanoma, RMS, lymphoid tumors, paraganglioma.

Loss of cell Surface antigen

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Q) Loss of cell surface antigen is a feature of 
A. CIS
B. NO RELATION WITH GRADE
C. LOW GRADE TUMOR
D. HIGH GRADE TUMOR

Ans d High grade

The ABO(H) blood group system consists of terminal oligosaccharide antigens carried by glycoproteins or glycolipids in hematopoietic or epithelial cells 

Their biosynthesis is presumed to be controlled by the ABO(H), Se, H, Le, and X blood group genes .

These antigens are present on normal bladder epithelium of secretor individuals but not on some low-grade and early-stage papillary urothelial carcinomas 

Moreover, initially expressing tumours lose these cell surface antigens upon local recurrence, progression to invasion or metastization 

Hypokalemia

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Q) Not a cause of hypokalemia

a) RT aspiration

b) Metabolic acidosis

c) Insulin

d) Hyperaldosteronism

b - Metabolic acidosis

 

Malignant features of salivary gland tumors

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Q) What is not a clinical feature of malignant conversion of salivary gland tumor? 

a) Pain 

b) Facial nerve weakness

c) Swelling

d) Cervical lymph node swelling

Ans a

Clinical features of high-grade malignant salivary tumours include

1. facial nerve weakness

2. rapid enlargement of the swelling; 

3. induration and/or ulceration of the overlying skin;

4. cervical node enlargement.

Ref Bailey 27th page 783

Most of these tumors are painless

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