HCC Cancer

Q) Which of the following is true about screening in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC Cancer) 

a) Alpha feto protein should be done 6 monthly

b) Ultrasound abdomen should be done 6 monthly

c) Candidates for liver transplant should be screened every 3 months

d) Nodules more than 2 cm should be followed up  more regularly

Answer b

Cirrhosis is prone for development of HCC. Screening has to be stringent.  Earlier ultrasound of liver and alpha feto protein were both used for screening

In 2009 Marrero et al demonstrated the suboptimal accuracy of AFP and after that it has been removed from the screening protocol and now only ultrasound is being done.

The screening recommendation is not for those patients with severe associated conditions and with advanced liver disease who are already considered for  transplant. So there is no screening for those who are already listed. Nodules more than 1 cm are highly suspicious where as in nodules less than 1 cm only 40% will be malignant.

Ref: blumgart 6th edition



Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis

Q) Not true about  recurrent pyogenic cholangitis :

a) Mostly there are intrahepatic strictures with involvement of the left side duct

b) It can present as choledocho duodenal fistula

c) There is complete biliary obstruction which  leads to marked jaundice and pruritis

d) MRCP and other other cholangiography can be diagnostic

Answer c

In recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC)  complete obstruction does not occur and jaundice and pruritis is not marked.  RPC is a disease commonly seen in young Asians (also known as oriental cholangiohepatitis) which leads to multiple strictures in extra or intrahepatic ducts.

Association with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis has been noted.

It can present as choledocholithiasis  with stricture, choledochoduodenal fistula, acute pancreatitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis and can lead to cholangiocarcinoma.

MRCP can be diagnostic and is preferred because of its non invasive nature.

Beger Procedure for Chronic Pancreatitis

Q) True about Beger procedure for chronic pancreatitis

a) Posterior branch of gastro duodenal artery is preserved.

b) Beger procedure is  a pancreatic head mass resection that can be done for small pancreatic tumors.

c) Intra pancreatic, choledochal and ampullary structures are removed.

d) Neck of the pancreas is not  transected

Answer a) Posterior branch of GDA is preserved

Beger procedure for chronic pancreatitis is mostly done in Europe. Hans Beger in 1972 in Germany introduced this  for chronic pancreatitis with inflammatory head mass. This is a complex procedure which removes head of the pancreas but leaves duodenum, a thin rim of pancreas around the medial aspect of duodenum and intrapancreatic bile duct intact.

The difference from  similar Frey's procedure is that in Beger procedure neck of the pancreas is transacted where as in Frey, neck of the pancreas is not cut.

This procedure is not recommended if there is suspicion of carcinoma  head of pancreas and Whipple is the procedure for that For Small tumors it can be used

Posterior branch of GDA is preserved in Beger Procedure.

Reconstruction is at two places: Distal pancreas and rim of the pancreas at medial side of duodenum.

Free Questions on Pancreas