Q) Not an indiction of haemorrhoidectomy 

a) Persistent Second degree haemorrhoid 5 days after sclerotherapy

b) 3rd degree haemorrhoid

c) Fibrosed  haemorrhoid

d)  Interno-external haemorrhoids when the external haemorrhoid is well defined.

Ans a

haemorrhoids can persist for 10 days after sclerotherapy

The indications for haemorrhoidectomy include:

● third- and fourth-degree haemorrhoids;

● second-degree haemorrhoids that have not been cured by non-operative treatments;

● fibrosed haemorrhoids;

● interno-external haemorrhoids when the external haemorrhoid is well defined.

Four degrees of haemorrhoids ●●

First degree – bleed only, no prolapse ●●

Second degree – prolapse but reduce spontaneously ●●

Third degree – prolapse and have to be manually reduced ●●

Fourth degree – permanently prolapsed

BAiley page 1357


Pseudo achalasia

Q) Most common cause of  pseudo achalasia is ?

(a) Benign tumors of esophagus
(b) Chagas disease
(c) Caustic injury
(d) Adenocarcinoma of cardia

Answer free for all 


Pseudoachalasia is an achalasia-like disorder that is usually produced by adenocarcinoma of the cardia
Other uncommon causes are
 1.benign tumours at this level.
2, Tumors of bronchus, pancreas
Ref Bailey page 1097

Marjolin Ulcer

Q) True about Marjolin's ulcer

a) lymphatic spread is common

b) They are painful

c) Aggressive and fast growing tumors

d) Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type

d. squamous cell carcinoma

When a SCC or BCC occurs in a long standing scar, it is called marjolin's ulcer.

Marjolin's type of ulcer is a malignant change that can occur in any long standing ulcer (ie venous ulcer)

Scar tissue is devoid of lymphatics, so no lymphatic spread. Lymphatic spread can still occur when it invades normal tissue. also nerve endings are not in scar tissue, so pain is a late feature

They are slow growing tumors, and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type. Slow growth is again due to avascular characterstic

Pouchitis after IPAA in ulcerative colitis

Q) Which of the following is Not a risk factor for pouchitis post IPAA in ULcerative colitis

A) Smoking
B ) NSAIDs use post op
C) Elderly patients
D) UC with extra intestinal manifestation

Ans a

Pouchitis is the complication of Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis (IPAA) for Ulcerative colitis. The incidence of pochitis for the same proedure for familial Adenomatous polyposis is less than 10% but for ulcerative colitis can go as high as 50%.

Risk factors for development of pouchitis are

  1. Previous extra intestinal manifestations of IBD especially arthritis
  2. ANCA positive cases of UC
  3. NOD2insC  positive patients
  4. Smoking prevents the development of puchitis after IPAA in ulcerative colitis.

5. Other reported factors that may associate with pouchitis include extent of UC, thrombocytosis,and PPI use with  NSAId

Ref - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/den.12744