Aclaculus choelcystitis

Q)  True about acalculous cholecystitis is:

a) Mortality more than that of calculus cholecystitis

b) GB rupture chances are more

c) Immediate cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice

d) Only A & B are correct

 A12) d

The disease  process  is  generally  more  fulminant  than  that  of  calculous cholecystitis  and  may  progress  to  gangrene  and  perforation  of  the gallbladder.

Treatment  of  acalculous  cholecystitis  is  similar  to  that  of  calculous  cholecystitis,  with  cholecystectomy  being  therapeutic. Given  the  substantial  inflammation  and  high  risk  of  gallbladder gangrene,  an  open  procedure  is  generally  preferred.

However, many  of  these  patients  are  critically  ill  and  would  not  tolerate  the physiologic  insult  of  a  laparotomy,  explaining  why  the  mortality rate  of  cholecystectomy  for  acalculous  cholecystitis  is  up  to  40%. Accordingly,  percutaneous  drainage  of  the  distended  and  inflamed gallbladder  is  carried  out  in  patients  unable  to  tolerate  a  laparotomy.

Approximately  90% of  patients  will  improve  with  percutaneous  drainage,  and  the  tube  can  eventually  be  removed.  If  follow-up  imaging  continues to  demonstrate  no  stones,  interval  cholecystectomy  is  generally unnecessary.


Perforation during Lap cholecytectomy

Q.     Regarding Lap Cholecystectomy false  is  (AIIMS) 

a.       GB perforation occurs in 40%

b.      Perforation occurs at time of dissection from GB bed

c.       10 – 30 % incidence of missed stones in peritoneal cavity

d.      Missed stones seldom cause any problem in the future

Carcinoma GB epidemiology

Q) Not true about GB malignancy

A. 80 percent of porcelain gall bladder predispose to malignancy

B. Untreated advanced  CA GB  median survival is 2-5 months

C. Stippled calcification of mucosa has higher risk of malignancy than diffuse intramural calcification

D. More than 75 percent of CA gall bladder has history of cholelithiasis


Ans a 

69% to 86% of patients with gallbladder cancer have a personal history of gallstone disease.

The presence of an abnormal pancreaticobiliary duct junction, thought to promote chronic biliary inflammation, has been associated with both choledochal cyst disease and gallbladder cancer.

In porcelain gallbladder, risk of ca gb due to chronic inflammation and calcification of the gallbladder wall, was once estimated to be as high as 61%; however, more contemporary analyses suggest that the correct figure is more likely between 7% and 25%

Ref Shackelford 8th page 1323

Intra op cholangio

Q) All of the following are indications for performing intra op cholangiography except:

A. Pain around the day of surgery
B. Anomalous biliary anatomy
C. Suspicious findings on ERCP
D. Abnormal hepatic function panel

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Radical Cholecystectomy

 Q) Radical cholecystectomy includes all except

a) Segment IVb and Va

b) 2cm wedge resection

c) Rt Extended Hepatectomy

d) Paraaortic lymphnodes

Answer and Explanation here

History of Radical Cholecystectomy

  1. Early 20th century removal of gall bladder and wedge of liver ( No lymphadenectomy) 
  2. In 1954, Glenn et al - radical resection procedure with intended regional lymphadenectomy (portal lymph node dissection), designated as “radical cholecystectomy” (Glenn operation)
  3.  Fahim et al in 1962 advocated radical resection consisting of hepatectomy and portal lymph node dissection

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Q) Regarding minimal access cholecystectomy all are true except?

a) NOTES can be done transvaginally and transgastrically

b) Transgastric route is preferred

c) SILS is done through single port with multiple instruments avoiding multiple ports

d) SILS has difficulty with triangulation and retraction

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Answer is B

Natural  orifice  transluminal  endoscopic  surgery (NOTES),  which  uses  natural  orifices  (transgastric, colonic,  urethral,  vagina)  to  introduce  an  endoscope,  has been  reported  since  early  2000  as  a  less  invasive  approach to  laparoscopy.  The  first  human  NOTES  transvaginal  cholecystectomy  was  reported  in  2007,  and  later  the  report  of a  hybrid  combination  of  flexible  scope  by  a  transvaginal approach  in  combination  with  an  umbilical  needle  or port  for  laparoscopic  instruments  for  retraction,  dissection,  or  clips  application.  This  hybrid  technique  allowed for  a  quicker  and  safer  procedure;  the  present  deficiency is  in  the  proper  endoscopic  instrumentation. For  the  trans vaginal  approach,  a  Foley  catheter is  placed,  a  dissection  is  performed  in  the  posterior vaginal  cul-de-sac  to  allow  a  port  placement,  and  when the  case  is  over,  the  closure  is  easier  than  a  transgastric or  transcolonic  approach,  which  continues  to  be  an  issue.