PET CT In Urological Malignancies

Q) PET CT in urological  malignancies most useful in? ( Questions as per NEW NEET SS Pattern) 

a) RCC

b) Testis

c) Urinary bladder

d) all

Ans B

Testis

In men with testis cancer, it is recommended in the follow-up of patients with seminoma with any residual mass

Promising in Urinary bladder ca

Not used in RCC 

BAiley page 1391

Differential diagnosis of mass in right iliac fossa

Q) Patient with generalized ill health and pyrexia has a mass in the right iliac fossa with a history of blood-stained mucoid diarrheia? Most common etiology in this case would be ? 

a) Carcinoma

b) TB

c) Amoeboma

d) Lymphoma

More questions on general surgery tropical infections

Ans  c

Amoeboma is partially treated amoebic infection of the caecum

It mostly presents as a mass in RIF and causes confusion with malignancy.

Such a patient is highly unlikely to have a carcinoma because altered bowel habit is not a feature of right-sided colonic carcinoma.

Ref Bailey page 58

Statistics – Tests of significance

Q) To Study the effect of an antiviral  drug, we note down the initial viral load and then after  a month repeat viral load. What is the   the most appropriate statistical test of significance to test the change in viral load

(a) Paired t-test
(b) Unpaired or independent t-test
(c) Analysis of variance
(d) Chi-square test

Ans a) Paired t test

paired t test is used When comparing the same person results after giving a drug or doing a surgery or any intervention

A paired t-test is used when we are interested in the difference between two variables for the same subject. Often the two variables are separated by time

Unpaired t test

The unpaired two-samples t-test is used to compare the mean of two independent groups.

For example, suppose that we have measured the weight of 100 individuals: 50 women (group A) and 50 men (group B). We want to know if the mean weight of women  is significantly different from that of men In this case, we have two unrelated (i.e., independent or unpaired) groups of samples. Therefore, it’s possible to use an independent t-test to evaluate whether the means are different.

Chi-square test

The basic idea behind the test is to compare the observed values in your data to the expected values that you would see if the null hypothesis is true.

To determine whether the association between two qualitative variables is statistically significant

Analysis of Variance ANOVA example

A group of psychiatric patients are trying three different therapies: counseling, medication and biofeedback. You want to see if one therapy is better than the others.

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