Q) IN RTOG trial for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) favourable tumor was defined as
a) <3,5 cm in size and 2mm free resection margin
b) <2.5 cm and 2mm margin
c) <3 cm size and 3 mm margin
d) <2.5 cm size and 3 mm margin
Answer - Free answers to surgery mcqs
Ductal carcinoma in situ is a pre invasive state in which the cancer cells have not breached the epithelial membrane. It can develop into cancer in 20%.
Simple mastectomy is the standard of care but many centers now consider it over treatment.
Van Nuys system uses
- Age of the patient
- type of DCIS
- presence of microcalcification
- resection margin
On mammography this is seen as clustered clustered calcification
Treatment options are
- Breast conserving therapy (Lumpectomy +radiation and hormonal)
More recently, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group investigators reported the frst result of a relatively large prospective single-arm study of surgery with negative margins of at least 3 mm without radiation therapy for patients with favorable subsets of DCIS.
Patients with low-grade or intermediate-grade DCIS measuring 2.5 cm or smaller had a 5-year rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence of only 6.1%. In contrast, patients with high-grade disease had a much higher 5-year ipsilateral breast recurrence rate of 15.3%.
REF : Sabiston 853
Q) In terms of cure best results in inflammatory carcinoma breast are seen with-
a) Surgery alone
d) All of the above
Surgery MCQ PDF - Free Answer
Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast is a rare aggressive tumor that blocks the sub dermal lymphatics as a result of which cutaneous edema is common . Differentiating it from a breast abscess is important and biopsy is diagnostic. It is also responsible to peau d orange
Treatment is multidisciplinary and involves, chemotherapy followed by surgery followed by radiotherapy.
Q) Simple nipple inversion is seen in?
a) Duct ectasia
c) Peri ductal fibrosis
d) Carcinoma breast
Inversion of nipple is seen in a lot of conditions, both benign and malignant. Common causes are
- Duct ectasia
- After breast Surgery
- Fat necrosis
- Mondor disease
- Chronic peri ductal mastitis
- Carcinoma breast
Rapid unilateral development of inversion of nipple is a dangerous sign and warrants further diagnosis. Further circumferential retraction is also sign of carcinoma.
Simple nipple inversion occurring at puberty or retracted nipple is of unknown cause and is bilateral in 25%. Mostly No treatment is required for this and condition resolves spontaneously during pregnancy and lactation.
Suction pumps and cosmetic surgery can also help.
Inversion of nipple associated with malignancy may be with or without the presence of lump. Associated discharge from the nipple can point to the diagnosis.
Ref - Bailey 801
Grading of benign nipple inversions for management
In grade I, the nipple is easily pulled out manually and maintains its projection quite well. It has minimal fibrosis thus, manual traction and a single, buried purse-string suture are enough for the correction.
Grade II (majority) the nipples can be pulled out but cannot maintain projection and tend to go back again. These nipples are thought to have moderate fibrosis beneath the nipple.
In grade III, to which the least number of inverted-nipple cases belong, the nipple can hardly be pulled out manually. Severe fibrosis made it impossible to reach optimal release of the fibrotic band with the preservation of the ducts.
Q) Popcorn calcification in breast is seen in which condition
b) Periductal fibrosis
c) Carcinoma breast
d) Duct ectasia
Free answer to Surgery MCQs
Here is the explanation.