Whipple’s triad

Q) Whipple's triad is seen in which pathological condition?

a) Insulinoma

b) Glucagonoma

c) VIPOma

d) Somatostatinoma



a) Insulinoma

Whipple's triad is seen in pancreatic insulinoma and consists of 

a) Symptoms of hypoglycemia

b) Fasting sugar less than 50 mg%

c) Relief of symptoms with administration of dextrose solution

Other Points

  • Insulinoma is the most common functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
  • Symptoms are present for many years before diagnosis
  • Weight gain is common
  • Distribution of insulinomas is equal in body head and tail
  • Average size of insulinoma is 1-1.5 cm

Symptoms of Insulinoma

The neuroglycopenic symptoms of insulinoma included confusion, visual change, and unusual behavior

Sympathoadrenal symptoms may include palpitations, diaphoresis, and tremulousness.

Whipple's triad is just a part of Insulinoma and is not pathognomic of it. This entity may also be seen in other hyperinsulinemic conditions.

For endogenous Insulinoma, following tests are done

Proinsulin above 5.0 pmol/L

insulin above 3.0 pmol/L,

C-peptide above 0.2 nmol/L

all demonstrate endogenous hyperinsulinemia

In Memoriam: Allen O. Whipple, M.D

Inversion of nipple

Q) Simple nipple inversion is seen in?

a) Duct ectasia

b) Puberty

c) Peri ductal fibrosis

d) Carcinoma breast

Answer of this question is free. Click the link for more similar questions for MCH preparation

Ans is b

Inversion of nipple  is  seen in a lot of conditions, both benign and malignant.

Common causes are 

Benign causes of Nipple inversion

  1. Duct ectasia
  2.  After breast Surgery
  3. Fat necrosis
  4. Mondor disease
  5. Chronic peri ductal mastitis


  1. Carcinoma breast 

Rapid unilateral development of inversion of nipple is a dangerous sign and warrants further diagnosis. Further circumferential retraction is also sign of carcinoma.

Simple nipple inversion occurring at puberty  or retracted nipple is of unknown cause and is bilateral in 25%. Mostly No treatment is required for this and condition resolves spontaneously during pregnancy and lactation.

Suction pumps and cosmetic surgery can also help.

Inversion of nipple associated with malignancy may be with or without the presence of lump. Associated discharge from the nipple can point to the diagnosis.

Duct ectasia - slit like retraction of nipple . ALso seen in duct ectasia is green, black or blood stained discharge from nipple



Ref - Bailey 801

Grading of benign nipple inversions for management

In grade I, the nipple is easily pulled out manually and maintains its projection quite well.  It has minimal fibrosis  thus, manual traction and a single, buried purse-string suture are enough for the correction.

Grade II (majority)  the nipples can be pulled out but cannot maintain projection and tend to go back again. These nipples are thought to have moderate fibrosis beneath the nipple.

In grade III, to which the least number of inverted-nipple cases belong, the nipple can hardly be pulled out manually. Severe fibrosis made it impossible to reach optimal release of the fibrotic band with the preservation of the ducts.

Ref https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10654681


Our Recommendations of surgery Books


Bailey & Love’s Short Practice of Surgery, 27th Edition

Sabiston’s Textbook of Surgery

Schwartz’s Principles Of Surgery

SRB’S Manual Of Surgery


Operative Techniques in Surgery by Michael W. Mulholland et al

Chassin’s Operative Strategy in General Surgery

Farquharson’s Textbook of Operative General Surgery

Q)  Is nipple inversion a sign of breast cancer?

A) Not always but above the danger signs and symptoms are listed


Complications of liver transplant

Q) True about liver transplant ( Question from this page)

a) Portal vein thrombosis is more common than Hepatic Artery thrombosis

b) Bile leak though common is not a significant problem

c) Any bleeding in post op period, patient should be taken to OT

d) Acute liver rejection is seen in 5-10% cases


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