Important points for NEET SS- General Surgery

  1.  Proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin­1 (IL­1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), IL­6 and IL­8 are produced within the first 24 hours and act directly on the hypothalamus to cause pyrexia.
  2. Under extreme conditions of catabolism (e.g. major sepsis), urinary nitrogen losses can reach 14–20 g/da 500 g of skeletal muscle per day.  Muscle catabolism cannot be inhibited fully by providing artificial nutritional support as long as the stress response continues.