OncoSurgery – General Onco mCQs

Similar Onco Surgery GEn Questions


These are the practice questions for MCH entrance in onco Surgery. MCQs are followed by answers


Q1)  For Superficial radiation. which is most commonly used
a)  electron
b) neutron


Q2. Which is the wrong match

  1. Rudolf virchow demonstrated that cancer is a disease of cells and result of abnormal proliferation
  2. Theodor boveri demonstrated the importance of chromosomal abnormalities in cancer
  3. Rudolf virchow demonstrated the link between inflammation and cancer
  4. Paul erlich, Frank mcfarlane, Lewis Thomas demonstrated the link between chronic inflammation and cancer

Ans_ D

In 1863, Virchow hypothesized that the origin of cancer was at sites of chronic inflammation, in part based on finding  leucocytes in tumor and hypothesized that some classes of irritants, together with the tissue injury and ensuing inflammation they cause, enhance cell proliferation

Paul erlich , Frank mcfarlane and Lewis Thomas demonstrated the possible role of immune system in eliminating nascent cancers.


Q 3 False about Warburg effect

a) Fermentation of glucose to lactate observed even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria is known as the Warburg Effect.

b) Warburg Effect is thought to be an early event in oncogenesis due to oncogene mutation

c) Aerobic glycolysis is a symbiotic process supplying lactate to the nearby tumor cells which use in citric acid cycle

d) Rate of glucose metabolism through aerobic glycolysis is higher such that the production of lactate from glucose occurs 10-100 times faster and more efficient than the complete oxidation of glucose in the mitochondria.

Ans d

 Aerobic glycolysis (fermentation as in Warburg effect )is faster but not more efficient than the mitochondrial process.


Q 4 False about chemokines

a) CXCL12, which is  the  ligand  for  the  chemokine  receptor  CXCR4, enriched  on  breast  cancer  cells also present in bone marrow , lymph nodes, liver and lung

b) Melanoma cells  were  found  to  express  elevated  levels  of  the  receptors  CXCR4,  CCR7,  and  CCR10  also expressed on Lymph  nodes,  lung,  liver,  bone  marrow

c) Chemokines  and  their  receptors  play  an  essential  role  in  the  successful  outgrowth  of  tumors at  preferential  sites supporting seed soil hypothesis

d) The normal counterparts of cancer cells also express chemokines and their ligands equally

Ans d

Chemokines and their receptors are expressed more by cancer cells than their normal counterparts

Ref sabiston


Q5) How many generation of cells it would take to make a cancer clinically detectable?

  1. 10
  2. 20
  3. 30
  4. 40

Ans 5  C 30

. Reference bailey


Q6 True about gompertzian growth

a) Doubling time of cancer cells increases with time

b) Tumor growth is exponential as the number of cells increases

c) Cancer cells don’t compete with each other , they have perfect symbiosis

d) Tumor cells are most sensitive to anti proliferative drugs when they are first detected

And 6A . Doubling time increases with time.

Ref bailey


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Q7 What is known  as  mitotic  catastrophe

  1. aberrant mitosis  caused  by  failure  of  the G2  checkpoint  to  block  mitosis  when  DNA  is  damaged  can  lead to  cell  death
  2. unregulated cell  destruction  associated  with  the  release  of proinflammatory  signals
  3. cell death triggered by  growth  factor  withdrawal, hypoxia,  DNA  damage
  4. cells undergoing  permanent  growth  arrest

Ans a


Q 8 True about telomere

a) The number  of  doublings  is  controlled  by  telomeres, the  ends  of  chromosomes  that  are  composed  of  several  thousand repeats  of  a  short  4–base  pair  sequence  element.

b) Telomerase prevent end-to-end  chromosomal  fusion.

c) Each DNA replication  is  associated  with  a  loss  of  50  to  100  base  pairs  of telomeric  DNA  from  the  ends  of  every  chromosome.

d) The  progressive  shortening  of  telomeres  through  successive  cycles  lead to shortening  and  end-to-end  chromosomal  fusions,  yielding  a  karyotype  disarray  that  almost  inevitably  results  in  cancer

Ans. C

A is wrong because telomeres are several thousand repeats of short 6 base pair sequence

B telomere not telomerase prevents end to end fusion.

c) Correct

d) Progressive telomere shortening results in cell death not cancer.

Ref. Sabiston


Q9 False about cancer stem cells ( CSC)

a) These cells  are extraordinarily  rare  within  the  tumor  and  usually  make  up  less than  10%  of  neoplastic  cells  and  often  less  than  5%.

b) CSCs may generate  tumors  through  self-renewal  as  well  as  through  differentiation  into  multiple  cell  types.

c) Various cell  surface  markers  have been  used  to  define  CSCs,  such  as  CD44,  CD133,  and  CXCR4 .

d) CSC are more sensitive to chemotherapy than the rest of tumor

 

Ans D.

CsC are less sensitive to chemotherapy than the rest of tumor . Ref sabiston


Q10 ) Patients with HER2 mutation with CA stomach, CA esophagus and CA breast were included in trial to study efficiency of trastuzumab. This is

a) Umbrella trial

b) Responder trial

c) Randomised trial

d) Basket trial

Ans. 10 D Basket trial

This is patients with particular mutations in different cancers are included. Different histology is basket

Umbrella trial-  Different mutations leading to different targetted Treatment  in SAME malignancy. Single histology, multiple biomarkers each matched to treatments


Q11 Patients with CA stomach of CDH mutations and p53 mutations, CA esophagus with HER2 mutation, CA lung with Kras mutations and ki 67 overexpression are included in trial. This is

a) Umbrella trial

b) Responder trial

c) Randomised trial

d) Basket trial

 

Ans  a) Umbrella trial.

This is multiple cancers with multiple mutations patients included in trial.


Q12) Obesity is associated with highest risk of developing which malignancy?
A. Renal cell carcinoma
B. CA Endometrium
C. Gastic cancer

d) Esophagus cancer


Q13)  All are hallmarks of cancer except:
A. Anti-inflammation
B. Genetic instability and mutation
C. Angiogenesis
D. Dysregulated cell energetic

 

 

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