OncoSurgery – General Onco Surgery MCQs 1-20

Gen Onco

Thyroid

Breast

Gen Onco 21-40


Q1)  For Superficial radiation. which is most commonly used
a)  Electron
b) Neutron

c) UV rays
d)  Gamma rays

Ans 1 a

Radiation is delivered as electrons, photons and neutrons

Electrons have the lowest penetration (6cm) from the surface of skin

They partially penetrate the body


Q2. Which is the wrong match

  1. Rudolf virchow demonstrated that cancer is a disease of cells and result of abnormal proliferation
  2. Theodor boveri demonstrated the importance of chromosomal abnormalities in cancer
  3. Rudolf virchow demonstrated the link between inflammation and cancer
  4. Paul erlich, Frank mcfarlane, Lewis Thomas demonstrated the link between chronic inflammation and cancer

Ans_ D

In 1863, Virchow hypothesized that the origin of cancer was at sites of chronic inflammation, in part based on finding  leucocytes in tumor and hypothesized that some classes of irritants, together with the tissue injury and ensuing inflammation they cause, enhance cell proliferation

Paul erlich , Frank mcfarlane and Lewis Thomas demonstrated the possible role of immune system in eliminating nascent cancers.


Q 3 False about Warburg effect

a) Fermentation of glucose to lactate observed even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria is known as the Warburg Effect.

b) Warburg Effect is thought to be an early event in oncogenesis due to oncogene mutation

c) Aerobic glycolysis is a symbiotic process supplying lactate to the nearby tumor cells which use in citric acid cycle

d) Rate of glucose metabolism through aerobic glycolysis is higher such that the production of lactate from glucose occurs 10-100 times faster and more efficient than the complete oxidation of glucose in the mitochondria.

Ans d

 Aerobic glycolysis (fermentation as in Warburg effect )is faster but not more efficient than the mitochondrial process.


Q 4 False about chemokines

a) CXCL12, which is  the  ligand  for  the  chemokine  receptor  CXCR4, enriched  on  breast  cancer  cells also present in bone marrow , lymph nodes, liver and lung

b) Melanoma cells  were  found  to  express  elevated  levels  of  the  receptors  CXCR4,  CCR7,  and  CCR10  also expressed on Lymph  nodes,  lung,  liver,  bone  marrow

c) Chemokines  and  their  receptors  play  an  essential  role  in  the  successful  outgrowth  of  tumors at  preferential  sites supporting seed soil hypothesis

d) The normal counterparts of cancer cells also express chemokines and their ligands equally

Ans d

Chemokines and their receptors are expressed more by cancer cells than their normal counterparts

Ref sabiston


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