Q1. Contraindication for Breast Conserving Surgery in Carcinoma Breast.
a) Small lump to breast ratio
b) Central tumor mass
c) Tumor size less than 5 cm
d) Young age of the patient
Breast conservation involves resection of the primary breast cancer with atleast 2 mm margin of normal-appearing breast tissue, adjuvant radiation therapy, and assessment of axillary lymph node status.
Breast conservation surgery is contraindicated when
-- the tumor is multicentric and multifocal
-- the tumor is central, the advantages of preserving the breast are lost as nipple areola complex is sacrificed
-- tumor is to breast ratio is large ie the form of breast is not preserved
-- Patient is not a candidate for radiation exposure, eg pregnancy, previous history of radiation SLE etc
Age is no criteria.
Q2. Which is not true regarding BRCA mutations in breast cancer?
a) BRCA 1 tumors are high grade as compared to BRCA 2
b) BRCA 1 breast cancer are hormone receptor positive
c) BRCA 1 breast tumor are aneuploid
d) BRCA 1 breast cancer have an increased S phase fraction
2) b . BRCA1- associated breast tumors have a worse prognosis than BRCA2- associated breast cancers.
They are high grade, associated with negative ER- PR receptors, increased S phase fraction and aneuploid.
Q3 ) Which of the following muscles do not form the posterior relation of breast?
a) Pectoralis major
b) Serratus Anterior
c) Rectus Abdominis
d) Lattismus Dorsi
The deep or posterior surface of the breast rests on the fascia of the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and external oblique abdominal muscles, and the upper extent of the rectus sheath.
Q4 Minimum number of lymph nodes to be dissected in Axillary sampling in breast conservation surgery is
Minimum number of lymph nodes to be removed in Axillary sampling is 4 and in Sentinel Lymph node biopsy is 2
In Breast conservation surgery the axilla can be dealt in three separate ways;
1. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
2. Axillary sampling
3. Axillary Dissection
Sentinel Lymph node biopsy axillary sampling is done for clinically node negative axilla.
Q5) In Breast Reconstructive surgery after mastectomy which of the following is not true regarding TRAM flap
a) TRAM flap may be based on a pedicled Superior Epigastric artery
b) TRAM flap can be transferred as a free flap
c) It is a type of myo cutaneous flap
d) It uses supraumbilical fat
After MRM, breast mound can be created using a TRAm flap which is a myocutaneous flap. It uses infraumbilical suprapubic fat and not supraumbilical fat. It may be pedicled based on superior epigastric artery or free flap based on deep inferior epigastric or perforator veseels.
Drawbacks to the TRAM flap include a longer operative time, a visible scar on the lower abdomen, and a slight weakening of the abdominal wall.
Sabiston 18th edition
Answer 1) c
Signs of suspicious findings on mammogram are
(1) breast calcifications
(a) smaller than 2 mm
(b) punctate, microlinear, or branching
(c) clustered along ducts or concentrated in clusters greater than
five calcifications per square centimeter;
(2) stellate-shaped lesions
3) masses with ill-defined borders or nodular contours
(4) solitary dominant masses that are significantly larger than any other mass in either breast
(5) areas of increased noneffacing tissue density or distorted breast architecture