USMLE Trauma

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Q ) A 25 year old male brought to the hospital  after being involved in a road traffic accident that occurred 50 minutes ago. His  initial BP at the scene of accident was  80/40 mm HG with a pulse rate of 120/min.

The paramedics administered 2 litres of normal saline in the ambulance and in the emergency department his BP is 110/70 with a pulse rate of 90/min.

He has tenderness in Left upper quadrant abdomen and USG reveals perisplenic fluid. Next step is to :

a) Take him for exploratory laparotomy

b) Shift him to ICU and observe

c) Do a CT scan of the abdomen

d) Put in a laparoscope and assess

Answer c

This Patient has a splenic injury due to blunt trauma abdomen.The  immediate management  depends on grade of splenic  injury  and response to IV Fluids. This patient is hemodynamically stable after IV fluids  and immediate laparotomy is not needed.

Direct shifting to ICU is also not the right choice because CT is required first and for more severe injuries patient can go to OT

Laparoscopy has no role in splenic injuries

Hirchsprung’s disease

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Q) False statement about Hirchsprung's disease is:

a) Male and Female have equal incidence

b) In approximately 8% of the patients entire colon is affected

c) After surgery constipation is the most common problem

d) Down syndrome can be seen in up to 3-5% patients 

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Answer

a

Hirchsprung's  disease is a developmental disorder characterized by absence of ganglion cells in both Auerbach's and Meissner's plexus and males are more frequently affected than females

Absence of these ganglion  cells lead to a very tight anal sphincter with resultant constipation.

This aganglionosis which is similar to Achalasia cardia  begins at anorectal junction and involves rectosigmoid in 80% and entire colon in 8% of cases.

Various surgical options like Duhamel, Swenson and Soave procedures can be done and in all constipation is a common problem

Down's syndrome is associated in 5%

Ref: Sabiston 20th edition page 1876

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HCC Cancer

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Q) Which of the following is true about screening in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC Cancer) 

a) Alpha feto protein should be done 6 monthly

b) Ultrasound abdomen should be done 6 monthly

c) Candidates for liver transplant should be screened every 3 months

d) Nodules more than 2 cm should be followed up  more regularly

Answer b

Cirrhosis is prone for development of HCC. Screening has to be stringent.  Earlier ultrasound of liver and alpha feto protein were both used for screening

In 2009 Marrero et al demonstrated the suboptimal accuracy of AFP and after that it has been removed from the screening protocol and now only ultrasound is being done.

The screening recommendation is not for those patients with severe associated conditions and with advanced liver disease who are already considered for  transplant. So there is no screening for those who are already listed. Nodules more than 1 cm are highly suspicious where as in nodules less than 1 cm only 40% will be malignant.

Ref: blumgart 6th edition

 

 

Mass in Right lower quadrant

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Q) A 55 year old lady presents with vague pain in right lower abdomen. Physical examination reveals a well defined mass there which is non tender and freely mobile. It is non pulsatile as well. What is the most likely possibility?

a) Appendicular mass

b) Mesenteric cyst

c) Perforated tubo ovarian mass

d) Meckel's diverticulum

Answer

b

Mesenteric cysts are uncommon lesions found in this age group. It typically presents as a freely mobile mass  which moves perpendicular to small blwel axis. It is painless as well.

Appendicular mass will have a preceding history of pain abdomen

Similarly perforated  tubo ovarian mass will also have a history of pain 

Meckel's diverticulum does not present as this kind of mass

  • gastricbypass.surgery

Gall Bladder Cancer in setting of APBDJ

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Questions for NET SS Coaching

Q) Gall bladder cancer arising in the setting of  Abnormal Pancreatico Biliary duct Junction (APBDJ) , all are true except

a) It occurs in younger age

b) Prevalent in Asian countries

c) More common in males

d) Less often associated with Gall stones


c)  It is more common in females

In APBDJ, pancreatic and biliary duct meet more than 15 mm away from the duodenal wall. APBDJ is seen more in asian countries and is associated as a cause of gall bladder cancer.

It is seen in younger age group

Most of the patients are females

Ref article- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658122/

EUS criteria of malignant lymph node

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Q) One of the following is not a criteria of malignancy in lymph node on EUS

a) Size more than 1 cm

b) Prominent intranodal vasculature

c) Sharp well defined  borders

d) Hypoechoic 

Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis

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Q) Not true about  recurrent pyogenic cholangitis :

a) Mostly there are intrahepatic strictures with involvement of the left side duct

b) It can present as choledocho duodenal fistula

c) There is complete biliary obstruction which  leads to marked jaundice and pruritis

d) MRCP and other other cholangiography can be diagnostic

Answer c

In recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC)  complete obstruction does not occur and jaundice and pruritis is not marked.  RPC is a disease commonly seen in young Asians (also known as oriental cholangiohepatitis) which leads to multiple strictures in extra or intrahepatic ducts.

Association with Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis has been noted.

It can present as choledocholithiasis  with stricture, choledochoduodenal fistula, acute pancreatitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis and can lead to cholangiocarcinoma.

MRCP can be diagnostic and is preferred because of its non invasive nature.

Relapse in colon cancer

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Q) All of the following colon cancers have high rate of relapse except? (# colon 1) 

a) Obstruction/Perforation

b) Venous invasion

c) Mucin production

d) High microsatellite instability

Flaps in Plastic Surgery

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Q. Z plasty is an example of 

a) Advancement flap

b) Delayed flap

c) Transposition flap

d) Rotation flap


Answer for all 

Flaps in plastic surgery are the cornerstone of management of skin and wound defects.

Advancement flaps are used to cover skin defects in face, scalp and neck. Examples of advancement flaps are monopedicled flaps,

bipedicled and V Y advancement flap.

Delay of flap is a surgical preconditioning, in which the blood supply  is partially blocked prior to actual procedure. It increases the length of the flap as well as its uptake rate.

Transposition flap - used in head and neck surgery, a rectangular flap is rotated.

 

Beger Procedure for Chronic Pancreatitis

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Q) True about Beger procedure for chronic pancreatitis

a) Posterior branch of gastro duodenal artery is preserved.

b) Beger procedure is  a pancreatic head mass resection that can be done for small pancreatic tumors.

c) Intra pancreatic, choledochal and ampullary structures are removed.

d) Neck of the pancreas is not  transected


Answer a) Posterior branch of GDA is preserved

Beger procedure for chronic pancreatitis is mostly done in Europe. Hans Beger in 1972 in Germany introduced this  for chronic pancreatitis with inflammatory head mass. This is a complex procedure which removes head of the pancreas but leaves duodenum, a thin rim of pancreas around the medial aspect of duodenum and intrapancreatic bile duct intact.

The difference from  similar Frey's procedure is that in Beger procedure neck of the pancreas is transacted where as in Frey, neck of the pancreas is not cut.

This procedure is not recommended if there is suspicion of carcinoma  head of pancreas and Whipple is the procedure for that For Small tumors it can be used

Posterior branch of GDA is preserved in Beger Procedure.

Reconstruction is at two places: Distal pancreas and rim of the pancreas at medial side of duodenum.

Free Questions on Pancreas

Traction diverticula

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Q) What is true about traction diverticula of the esophagus?

a) It is a common diverticulum at the lower end of esophagus

b) Most  of these diverticula are symptomatic and require surgery

c) Mediastinal fibrosis is a common etiologial factor

d) They are most common on the left side

c) Mediastinal fibrosis

Traction diverticula  are formed from  pull from granulomatous inflammation from  surrounding , most commonly lymph nodes.

Mid esophagus on the right side 4-5 cm either side of carina. 

Etiology

Mediastinal infections, tuberculosis, mediastinal fibrosis and histoplasmosis.

 True traction diverticula and have all the walls of esophagus.

Clinical Features

Asymptomatic but can present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation.

Complications include bleeding or fistula formation with airway.

Surgical option - right  thoracotomy followed by excision of fistula and repair of esophagus in layers with correction of distal obstruction if present.

SKF

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