Radiation proctitis

Q) In radiation proctitis surgery is needed in all except 

a) Pain Abdomen

b) Rectal stricture

c) Haemorrhage

d) Vesical Fistula

Free Question on management of raiation proctiitis 

Ans a, NOT indicated  for pain

Acute Radiation proctitis - Occurs within 6 mths of starting the treatment

Chronic - After 6 mths, Most patients develop symptoms at a median of 8 to 12 months after completion of radiotherapy

Modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group rectal toxicity scale

Grade 1 Mild and self-limiting Minimal, infrequent bleeding or clear mucus discharge, rectal discomfort not requiring analgesics, loose stools not requiring medications
Grade 2 Managed conservatively, lifestyle (performance status) not affected Intermittent rectal bleeding not requiring regular use of pads, erythema of rectal lining on proctoscopy, diarrhea requiring medications
Grade 3 Severe, alters patient lifestyle Rectal bleeding requiring regular use of pads and minor surgical intervention, rectal pain requiring narcotics, rectal ulceration
Grade 4 Life threatening and disabling Bowel obstruction, fistula formation, bleeding requiring hospitalization, surgical intervention required


  1. Use of newer conformal radiation therapy techniques.
  2. Amifostine is a prodrug that is metabolized to a thiol metabolite that is thought to scavenge reactive oxygen species
  3. Placebo-controlled phase III trials have detected no benefit from either topical or oral sucralfate.

Treatment  of radiation proctitis 


  1. Butyrates
  2. ASA
  3. Sucralfate
  4. Metronidazole
  5. Short chain FA
  6. Topical formalin
  7. Hyperbaric o2


  1. dilatation
  2. Heater and bipolar cautrey
  3. ND YAG
  4. APC
  5. RFA


Diverting ostomies for severe stricture - Better for incontinence, stricture and limited benefit  for bleed

Reconstruction with Flaps -  rectourethral or rectovaginal fistula with a pedunculated gracilis or a Martius flap to facilitate healing by introducing well-vascularized healthy tissue,

Proctectomy  complicated fistulous disease, especially when accompanied by significant pain and incontinence, or in cases of severe and intractable bleeding

Blood supply of CBD

Q) CBD is supplied by all except (AIIMS NOV 18)
a Cystic art
d Anterosuperior pancreaticoduodenal artery



Its c
As per sackhelford CBD is supplied by
Cystic duct,RHA,retroduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery



GI bleed

Q) Which of the following statement is incorrect for  GI bleeding?

a) Clear nasogastric aspirate rules out Upper gi bleed

b) RBC scan detects bleed upto 0.1-0.5 ml/min

c) Angio detects 0.5-1 ml/min

d) UGI bleed is responsible for 15% of haematochezia


Complications of Meckel’s diverticulum

Q. Least common complication of Meckel's diverticulum (NEET 2018) 

a) Bleeding

b) Obstruction

c) Neoplasm

d) Obstruction

Answer is free 
7) c Neoplasm

The most common clinical presentation of Meckel’s diverticulum is gastrointestinal bleeding, which occurs in 25% to 50% of patients who present with complications

intestinal obstruction occur as a result of a volvulus of the small bowel around a diverticulum associated with a fibrotic band attached to the abdominal wall, intussusception, or, rarely, incarceration of the diverticulum in an inguinal hernia (Littre hernia)

Diverticulitis accounts for 10% to 20% of symptomatic presentations.

Neoplasms can also occur in a Meckel’s diverticulum, with NET as the most common malignant neoplasm (77%). Other histologic types include adenocarcinoma (11%), which generally originates from the gastric mucosa, and GIST (10%) and lymphoma (1%).

Sabiston -1285

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