Radiation proctitis

Q) In radiation proctitis surgery is needed in all except 

a) Pain Abdomen

b) Rectal stricture

c) Haemorrhage

d) Vesical Fistula

Free Question on management of raiation proctiitis 

Ans a, NOT indicated  for pain

Acute Radiation proctitis - Occurs within 6 mths of starting the treatment

Chronic - After 6 mths, Most patients develop symptoms at a median of 8 to 12 months after completion of radiotherapy

Modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group rectal toxicity scale

Grade 1Mild and self-limitingMinimal, infrequent bleeding or clear mucus discharge, rectal discomfort not requiring analgesics, loose stools not requiring medications
Grade 2Managed conservatively, lifestyle (performance status) not affectedIntermittent rectal bleeding not requiring regular use of pads, erythema of rectal lining on proctoscopy, diarrhea requiring medications
Grade 3Severe, alters patient lifestyleRectal bleeding requiring regular use of pads and minor surgical intervention, rectal pain requiring narcotics, rectal ulceration
Grade 4Life threatening and disablingBowel obstruction, fistula formation, bleeding requiring hospitalization, surgical intervention required

Prevention

  1. Use of newer conformal radiation therapy techniques.
  2. Amifostine is a prodrug that is metabolized to a thiol metabolite that is thought to scavenge reactive oxygen species
  3. Placebo-controlled phase III trials have detected no benefit from either topical or oral sucralfate.

Treatment  of radiation proctitis 

Medical

  1. Butyrates
  2. ASA
  3. Sucralfate
  4. Metronidazole
  5. Short chain FA
  6. Topical formalin
  7. Hyperbaric o2

Endoscopic

  1. dilatation
  2. Heater and bipolar cautrey
  3. ND YAG
  4. APC
  5. RFA

Surgery

Diverting ostomies for severe stricture - Better for incontinence, stricture and limited benefit  for bleed

Reconstruction with Flaps -  rectourethral or rectovaginal fistula with a pedunculated gracilis or a Martius flap to facilitate healing by introducing well-vascularized healthy tissue,

Proctectomy  complicated fistulous disease, especially when accompanied by significant pain and incontinence, or in cases of severe and intractable bleeding