Triads in Surgery

Triads in Surgery  are often asked in NEET SS and AIIMS MCH MCQs as these questions are easy to frame and  form a simple answer.

Triads are mostly clinical findings which took their origin in the early developmental part of medicine and Surgery. Over the years imaging and lab characteristics were added

1. Beck's triad -

Distended Neck veins, Distant heart sounds & Hypotension

Seen in cardiac tamponade. In conditions  like pericardial infection, rupture of the aorta,  chest trauma— Any condition which can cause the build up of fluid, blood, or air in the pericardial sac.

2. Sandbolm's triad  - Exam favorite, asked many times

Malena, Obstructive jaundice, Biliary colic

Seen in Haemobilia, Most common cause of haemobilia is iatrogenic

3. Carcinoid Triad

Carcinoid Syndrome

Flushing, Diarrhea & Cardiac Involvement

Imaging shows small bowel mass and liver metastasis . Serotonin is responsible most of the times


4. Dieulafoy triad

Seen in Acute Appendicitis

Hyperesthesia of the skin, exquisite tenderness and guarding over Mcburney Point

5. Borchardt's triad

Acute gastric volvulus 

consists of unproductive retching, epigastric pain and distention, and the inability to pass a nasogastric tube

5. Rigler's triad

Gallstone ileus

Pneumobilia, intestinal obstruction and an ectopic gallstone

6. Currarino triad

 an autosomal dominant hereditary condition characterised by sacral malformation, anorectal malformation (often stenosis) and a presacral mass consisting of a dermoid cyst/teratoma and/or anterior meningocele.

7. Classic triad of Pheochromocytoma

Headache, diaphoresis, and palpitations

8. Cushing Triad 

Raised Intra cranial pressure 

Cushing triad of widened pulse pressure (increasing systolic, decreasing diastolic) bradycardia, and irregular respirations.