Triads in Surgery are often asked in NEET SS and AIIMS MCH MCQs as these questions are easy to frame and form a simple answer.
Triads are mostly clinical findings which took their origin in the early developmental part of medicine and Surgery. Over the years imaging and lab characteristics were added
1. Beck's triad -
Distended Neck veins, Distant heart sounds & Hypotension
Seen in cardiac tamponade. In conditions like pericardial infection, rupture of the aorta, chest trauma— Any condition which can cause the build up of fluid, blood, or air in the pericardial sac.
2. Sandbolm's triad - Exam favorite, asked many times
Malena, Obstructive jaundice, Biliary colic
Seen in Haemobilia, Most common cause of haemobilia is iatrogenic
3. Carcinoid Triad
Flushing, Diarrhea & Cardiac Involvement
Imaging shows small bowel mass and liver metastasis . Serotonin is responsible most of the times
4. Dieulafoy triad
Seen in Acute Appendicitis
Hyperesthesia of the skin, exquisite tenderness and guarding over Mcburney Point
5. Borchardt's triad
Acute gastric volvulus
consists of unproductive retching, epigastric pain and distention, and the inability to pass a nasogastric tube
5. Rigler's triad
Pneumobilia, intestinal obstruction and an ectopic gallstone
6. Currarino triad
an autosomal dominant hereditary condition characterised by sacral malformation, anorectal malformation (often stenosis) and a presacral mass consisting of a dermoid cyst/teratoma and/or anterior meningocele.
7. Classic triad of Pheochromocytoma
Headache, diaphoresis, and palpitations
8. Cushing Triad
Raised Intra cranial pressure
Cushing triad of widened pulse pressure (increasing systolic, decreasing diastolic) bradycardia, and irregular respirations.