Q Vascular anastomosis, preferable suture material
A. Non-absorbable, elastic
B. Non-absorbable, non-elastic
C. Absorbable, elastic
D. Absorbable, non-elastic
Q Most common site of Optic nerve injury
Q) All are contraindication for strictureplasty in Crohn Disease except
a) Multiple stricture in short segment
b) Colonic stricture
c) Immediate recurrence with obstruction
Q) Blade used for arteriotomy?
a) No. 11
b) No. 22
c) No. 10
d) No. 23
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Q) Adverse factor for spontaneous fistula closure:
a) Tract <1cm
b)Transferrin > 200
c) Location in esophagus
d) First surgery done in the same institution
a) Tract less than 1 cm
Spontaneous fistula closure
Short-turnover protein (prealbumin, retinol-binding protein, transferrin) levels should be measured at least weekly to assess the adequacy of protein delivery. An ongoing catabolic state will adversely affect short-turnover protein levels, even with maximal protein delivery.
Failure of an enterocutaneous fistula to close spontaneously is associated with acronym FRIENDS):
the presence of a foreign body within the tract or adjacent to it, previous radiation exposure of the site, ongoing inflammation (most commonly from Crohn disease) or infection that contributes to a catabolic state, epithelialization of the fistula tract (particularly if the fistula tract is less than 2 cm long), neoplasm, distal intestinal obstruction, and pharmacologic doses of steroids.
Fistulas associated with a concurrent pancreatic fistula also have a low rate of spontaneous closure, as do those occurring in the presence of malnutrition or adjacent infection.
In general, anatomic locations that are favorable for closure are the oropharynx, esophagus, duodenal stump, pancreas, biliary tree, and jejunum.
Q) ASD most commonly associated with mitral insufficiency
a) Secundum defect
b) Sinus Venosus defect
c) Ostium primum
d) Coronary sinus defect
Q) All are precancerous for oral cancers except?
b. Speckled erythroplakia.
c. Discoid lupus
d. Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
Q3. What should be the ratio of length : breadth in an elliptical incision
Q) Ascent of horseshoe kidney is prevented by?
a) Superior Mesenteric artery
b) Superior Mesenteric Vein
c) Inferior mesenteric artery
d) Inferior mesenteric vein
Q) What is the ideal suture is to wound length ratio for appropriate wound closure?
Q . Which of the following has the greatest impact on the physiology of tetralogy of Fallot?
A. The size of the ASD.
B. The size of the VSD.
C. The degree of pulmonary stenosis.
D. The amount of aortic overriding
Q. Which of the following statements about VSDs is wrong ?
A. Spontaneous closure occurs in 25-50% of patients during childhood.
B. Tachypnea and failure to thrive are symptoms frequently associated with large VSDs.
C. Patients with normal pulmonary vascular resistance and left-to-right shunting across the VSD have Eisenmenger’s complex.
D. Patients with a large VSD and low pulmonary vascular resistance can present with a mid diastolic murmur at the apex.
Q) What are natural killer cells?
a) Multinuclear monocytes
b) Special macrophages
c) Antibody presenting cells
d) Large granular lymphocytes?
Answer is free
Large granular lymphocytes
Natural killer cells are a part of lymphocytes called "null cells" These are large granular lymphocytes and the 1st line of defence against viruses and bacteria
They belong to null cells as they do not rely on specific match or memory.
They control both tumor and microbial spread in the body.
Unlike T cells ( which mature in thymus), natural killer cells develop in bone marrow. They identify the viruses and other harmful cells by lack of major histocompatibility complexes (MHC)
Antigen presenting cells are B cells
T cells are direct cyto toxic cells
Sabiston 20th page 601