Spontaneous fistula closure

Q) Adverse factor for spontaneous fistula closure:

a) Tract <1cm

b)Transferrin > 200

c) Location in esophagus

d) First surgery done in the same institution

Answer free

a) Tract less than 1 cm

Spontaneous fistula closure

Short-turnover  protein (prealbumin,  retinol-binding  protein,  transferrin)  levels should  be  measured  at  least  weekly  to  assess  the  adequacy of  protein  delivery. An  ongoing  catabolic  state  will adversely  affect  short-turnover  protein  levels,  even  with maximal  protein  delivery.

Failure  of  an  enterocutaneous  fistula  to  close  spontaneously  is associated with acronym FRIENDS): 

the  presence  of  a foreign  body  within  the  tract  or  adjacent  to  it,  previous radiation  exposure  of  the  site,  ongoing  inflammation (most  commonly  from  Crohn  disease)  or  infection  that contributes  to  a  catabolic  state,  epithelialization  of  the fistula  tract  (particularly  if  the  fistula  tract  is  less  than 2  cm  long),  neoplasm,  distal  intestinal  obstruction,  and  pharmacologic  doses  of  steroids. 

Fistulas  associated  with  a concurrent  pancreatic  fistula  also  have  a  low  rate  of  spontaneous  closure,  as  do  those  occurring  in  the  presence  of  malnutrition  or  adjacent  infection.

In general,  anatomic  locations  that  are  favorable  for  closure  are  the  oropharynx,  esophagus,  duodenal  stump,  pancreas,  biliary  tree,  and  jejunum.

Ventricular Septal defect

Q. Which of the following statements about VSDs is wrong ?

A. Spontaneous closure occurs in 25-50%  of patients during  childhood.
B. Tachypnea and failure to thrive are symptoms frequently associated with  large VSDs.
C. Patients with normal pulmonary vascular resistance and left-to-right  shunting across the VSD have Eisenmenger’s complex.
D. Patients with a large VSD and low pulmonary vascular resistance can  present with a mid diastolic murmur at the apex.

Answer for premium 

Natural Killer cells

Q) What are natural killer cells?

a) Multinuclear monocytes

b) Special macrophages

c) Antibody presenting cells

d) Large granular lymphocytes?

Answer is free


Large granular lymphocytes

Natural killer cells are a part of lymphocytes called "null cells"  These are large granular lymphocytes and the 1st line of defence against viruses and bacteria

They belong to null cells as they do not rely on specific match or memory.

They control both tumor and microbial spread in the body. 

Unlike T cells ( which mature in thymus), natural killer cells develop in bone marrow. They identify the viruses and other harmful cells by lack of major histocompatibility complexes (MHC)

Antigen presenting cells are B cells

T cells are direct cyto toxic cells


Ref: https://study.com/academy/lesson/natural-killer-cells-definition-functions-quiz.html

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